HISB41 Exam Notes.docx

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HISB41 LECTURE Exam Notes (Urban indo-Great Depression) Urban-industrial Revolution Origins: 1870-1900  Primary sector in decline (Wheat, Wood, farming) and the increased use of mechanized farming also helped increase unemployment (1870s) and women thus worked to support family (pink collar)  Kids in farms weren't needed as much b/c of machines, and had nothing to do.  Population boom  Technological change (sewing machines, steam, baking) which increased productivity and thus investors made more of them  In the infrastructure, 1. Capital was available (joint stock company which sold stocks and helped fund), 2. Cheap energy (coal, electricity), 3. and low cost services/input  The National Policy during the 1870s: tariffs stimulated economy (foreign investors), westward settlement in Canada stimulating industrialization, and the Canadian Pacific Railway opened west markets/boosted central Canada while the railway was being built  Gvnt Assistance: taxbreaks/land/subsidies offered, primary school skilled labour force was given, went into business, and nd tech courses were given a greater interest 2 Industrial Revolution 1900-1914  Primary sector revived through a natural resource boom (wheat price increased) where Canada would buy its own supplies b/c of tariffs, an export tax increased paper boom wood industry boomed  Central Canada became a “new Ontario” by gold/mineral discovery when these minerals soared  Gvn’t assistance helped fortunes being made nd  Help from primary sector focussed more on instead of new machines in this 2 revo Themes: rapid urbanization, manufacturing spread, industrialization Average Working Class Impact pre-revolution:  Artisans through their skills were important and wealthier  Many Merchants (retailors and sailors)  Most were in resource center Average Working Class impact during Revolution:  Artisans replaced by manufacturing and machines  More jobs made by the service sector being transformed (by commercial aspect of Revolution) which created transeport/banks/insurance/law/accounting  Department stores made for convenience and the stores were able to undersell small store owners  Mall ordering took down general stores Impact on Working Class:  Working class created where fixed hours created where the unskilled given chance to become semi-skilled  Jobs were less physically tiring through machines and health/safety increased by gvn’t assistance  Rent increased by 20-25%  50% of class were under poverty line since factories would shut down seasonally  Taylorism: minimal tasks increased productivity i.e. assembly lines  People felt like machines  Factory laws weren’t enforced properly and thus many factories didn’t follow regulations.  Women were housemaids or domestic servants (40%) which were leisureless jobs filled with harassment and cheap wages  25% of factory work were women with 60 hour weeks paid by amount made not hourly, and the jobs were meaningless  Office work became more specializedmenial jobs given to women  Social jobs were usually female oriented jobs and clerical jobs boomed  Transition was hard Progressive Social Reform Movement Pre-movement:  People felt social problems were in the individual and thus the solution was to change the individual After-Movement:  Social Gospel: People blamed the environment and that change was needed in the work/play/living environment During Movement:  Women’s Christian Temperance Movement (WCTC): women expected to create perfect home environment which made them feel proud  Felt city life evils (booze) made their role harder and to balance social reforms organizations were made to fight evils such as making the temperance movement  WCTC wanted to preserve women traditional role in home  “Social Purity” major cause was to maintain and protect the morals of the working girl  They wanted a strict police force and women sport teams (YWCA)  Not enough money and many reform movements died  People didn’t like their movement b/c they liked drinking  This movement paved way for welfare movement  Increased rights for women because of the movement Rise/Fall of Laurier Liberalism 1896-1911 Conservative died 1896 by the failure of “the national policy” where prosperity didn’t come and by the death of John A. Macdonald (charisma died with him). Wilfred elected and took his gvn’t into a mid-ground of extremes which helped west settlement. Laurier Era 1896-1911  Trade Policy: tariff which protected Canadian product being outsold by the US cheaper option, was thus made dominant  FR/ENG relations: o 1. Won some rights for bilingualism to resolve the Manitoba question (Manitoba took away bilingual schools away). Bilingualism accepted by 1901 o 2. Boer War involvement was made an easy critique point for French (they felt we didn’t need to help Brit) and British (felt we should’ve sent more) o 3. Autonomy Bills: French speaking education had no more special rights which made Robert Bourassa and Sifton to leave which splintered Laurier’s support and alienated many people. o 4. 1910 Naval Services Bill: With German Naval boom, Brit wanted Can. Support and Laurier promised them a fleet through this bill that wouldn’t please either Fr/Brit Canadians but would show Britain that they were independent. This bill was passed and even more were alienated. Doom of Laurier: Robert Borden of the Conservatives attacked Laurier’s tariff which only helped central Can, Laurier’s 1911 US trade agreement (said with support from Sifton and 18 other liberals that it would make a union w/US possible), and used emotional attacks of Laurier either betraying French Canadians by aiding Brit of hurting Brit relation by US trade agreement. Theme: Neither party was all that different and showed modernism in both parties. Parties were elected based on face of leader; Laurier was not able to make differences of ENG/FR
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