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HISC65H3 (2)

Midterm Exam Key Terms

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Natalie Rothman

1HISC65 KEY TERMS FOR MIDTERM WEEK 2 1 Veneto y The six provinces of Venice 2 Terraferma mainland y literally the mainland domains or mainland state was the name given to the territories of the Republic of Venice conquered in the PadanoVeneto hinterland y These Domini along with the Dogado and Stato da Mr were the three subdivisions of the Venetian state At its greatest extent it included Veneto Friuli and parts of Lombardy bounded only by the River Po the Adda River the Alps and the Carso 3 Cassiodorusy Letter from Cassiodorus Senator i Suggests that Venice even in the early centuries serves as a liaison for the mainlandstrong connections economic and political to Venice itself and the sea 4 Stato da Mar maritime state y the name given to the Republic of Venices maritime and overseas possessions including Istria Dalmatia Negroponte the Morea the Kingdom of the Morea the Aegean islands of the Duchy of the Archipelago and the islands of Crete the Kingdom of Candia and Cyprus It was one of the three subdivisions of the Republics possessions the other two being the Dogado ie Venice proper and the Domini di Terraferma in northern Italy y The creation of the Venices overseas empire began around 1000 with the conquest of Dalmatia and reached its greatest extent at the conclusion of the Fourth Crusade with the acquisition of three octaves of the Roman Empire of the East Later on under increasing pressure from the Ottoman Empire many territories were lost and reorganised until when the Republic fell in 1797 only Istria Dalmatia Corfu and the Ionian Islands were left 5 Doge y the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for over a thousand years Doges of Venice were elected for life by the citystates aristocracy Commonly the person selected as Doge was the shrewdest elder in the city Contrary to popular belief the doge was not a duke in the modern sense nor was a doge the equivalent of a hereditary duke The doge was the seniormost elected official of Venice and Genoa both cities were republics and elected doges A doge was referred to variously by the titles My Lord the Doge Monsignor el Doxe Most Serene Prince Serenissimo Principe and His Serenity Sua Serenit 6 Translation of St Mark y St Marks body stolen from Alexandria in Egypt and transferred to Venice y Image St Mark in Aquileia 2i Belief that St Mark came to the lagoon and established Aquileia and converted the people to Christianity ii Acquiring the relics of St Mark is significant to Venetian politics but also is important in humiliating Aquileia and establishing Venice as the heart of Christianity in the region 7 Pax Tibi Marce Evangelista Meus Latin y Peace to you Mark my Evangelist Here will rest your body y Legend states that when the evangelist went to the lagoon where Venice would later be founded an angel came and said so The first part is depicted as the note in the book shown opened by the lion of St Marks Basilica Venice registered trademark of the Assicurazioni Generali Trieste 8 Winged Lion i Animal associated with St Mark in the bible ii Venice the city had many of the monuments iii Also in colonies like Greece etc iv Emblem of Venice 9 The Fourth Crusade 12021204 y Fourth Crusade and its Aftermathy Also a real power struggle between the Pope in Rome and the Byzantine emperor y Venicelavish display of wealth and power in the citycaused even more tensions with Byzantines y Ended in the sack of Constantinople y Not just political movedone out of political zeal y The Ayubbid Sultanate 11711250 y The Fourth Crusade 12024 i Crusaders assemble in Venice which promises transportation in exchange for their help in reconquering Zara a mission accomplished in 1202 Venice also gains many important strongpoints in the Aegean ii View of Byzantine as a people worthy to be attacked and converted y originally intended to conquer Muslimcontrolled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt Instead in April 1204 the Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and conquered the Christian Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople capital of the Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine Empire This is seen as one of the final acts in the Great Schism between the Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church 10 Geoffroy de Villehardouin 1160c 1212 y was a French knight from the County of Champagne who joined the Fourth Crusade He participated in the conquest of the Peloponnese and became the second prince of Achaea12091210c 1229y Under his reign the principality of Achaea became the direct vassal of the Latin Empire 5of Constantinople He extended the borders of his principality but the closing years of his rule were marked by his conflict with the church
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