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HLTA02H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Health Care In Canada, Cervical Cancer, Passive Smoking


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTA02H3
Professor
Dan Silver
Study Guide
Final

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HLTB03 EXAM REVIEW:
Lecture 1: Introduction
Structural Functionalism framework for building theory that sees society as a complex
system, parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. Looks at society through a
macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as
a whole, and believes that society has evolved like organisms
Conflict Theory perspectives in sociology that emphasize the social, political, or material
inequality of a social group, that critique the broad socio-political system, or that otherwise
detract from structural functionalism and ideological conservativism. Conflict theories draw
attention to power differentials, such as class conflict, and generally contrast historically
dominant ideologies. It is therefore a macro level analysis of society.
Symbolic Interactionist/Interpretive Theory focuses on the analysis of the patterns of
communication, interpretation and adjustment between individuals. The theory is a
framework for understanding how individuals interact with each other and within society
through the meanings of symbols.
Feminist/Anti-Racist/Intersectionality Theory collection of movements and
ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and
social rights
Lecture 2: Women’s and Men’s Health
Facts about the body that differ by gender…
On average women say 7,000 words per day. Men say over 2,000 on average.
Women burn fat more slowly than men, by a rate of about 50 calories a day.
Women's hearts beat faster than men's.
Women’s Health
Smoking
Smoking rates among men tend to be 10 times higher than women.
However, women generally have less success in quitting the habit, have more
relapses than men, and nicotine replacement therapy may be less effective among
women.
Increase in young people smoking
Men more likely to leave the house and engage with others and smoke
Women have a harder time quitting
HIV
Of all adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, 61% are women
In the Caribbean, the proportion of women living with the virus is 43%
Though lower, the numbers of women living with HIV in Latin America, Asia and
Eastern Europe are also growing.
Easier for a women to contract from a man, from both physiological and statistical
perspective
Abuse
Between 15% and 71% of women around the world have suffered physical or sexual
violence committed by an intimate male partner at some point in their lives
As many as 1 in 5 women reports being sexually abused before the age of 15
Environmental Exposure
In most countries women tend to be in charge of cooking
o When they cook over open fires or traditional stoves, they breathe in a mix
of hundreds of pollutants on a daily basis.

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o During pregnancy, exposure of the developing embryo to such harmful
pollutants may cause low birth weight or even stillbirth.
Health Care
Across the world and at all ages, women have a significantly higher risk of becoming
visually impaired than men
Many women do not have equal access to health care to treat eye diseases often due
to
o their inability to travel unaccompanied to health facilities, and
o cultural differences in the perceived value of surgery or treatment for
women
Obesity
Risk Factors:
Physical Inactivity
Diet
Socioeconomic factors
Heredity
Consequences:
Type 2 Diabetes
Psychological Issues
High Blood Pressure
Osteoarthritis
Some cancers and Gallbladder
disease
Limited Life Expectancy
Limited Quality of Life
Pregnancy
Women who graduate university tend to be older at the birth of their 1st child
Risk factor: downs syndrome
Benefits of Breast Feeding
Baby
Protective factor to gastrointestinal infections
Prevents respiratory illnesses
Decreases in SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
Higher IQs
Controversy with all of those studies
Mother
Decreased risk of pre menopausal breast cancer and ovarian cancer
Less likely to have factures if they develop osteoporosis
Helps the uterus to contract
Convenient
Women Get Sicker
More older women than men are afflicted by Alzheimer’s disease, osteoporosis &
arthritis
Women experience more minor health conditions compared to men
Women are more likely to visit the doctor
Men Die Quicker
Premature girls more likely to survive than boys
Women develop cardiovascular disease about 10 years later than men
WHY?
Testosterone surge manifests riskier, more aggressive behaviours
Mens bodies are bigger more that could possibly go wrong
Jobs and habits i.e. war, alcohol, cigarettes
Gender Affects Health

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Cardiovascular disease tends to appear about 10 years later in women than in men
Cardiovascular disease manifests itself different in women than in men
Smoking among teenaged girls now exceeds smoking rates among teenaged boys
The death rate from suicide is at least four times higher for men than it is for women
However, women are hospitalized for attempted suicide at about one and a
half times the rate of men
For Aboriginal women, the rate of diabetes is five times higher than it is for all other
women in Canada; for Aboriginal men, the rate is three times higher
Major Diseases/Illnesses that Target Women
Cardiovascular diseases are 8 times more likely to kill women than much-feared and
much-publicized breast cancer
Lung cancer has recently surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of death due
to cancer in women
1 in 9 women will be diagnosed w breast cancer in the course of her life
The incidence of breast cancer has risen steadily over the last decade
Mortality rates have declined
Cervical Cancer
Incidence rates rise sharply round 40 years of age
est.,. Predict that up to 90% of cervical cancer could be prevented by regular
Pap Smear testing
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has recently been identified as being
responsible for the large minority of cervical cancer
Canadian Women & HIV/AIDS
12.1% of positive HIV test reports among adults
24.8% of AIDS cases among adults
Women represent an increasing proportion of reported HIV cases in Canada
The proportion varies considerably by age and is highest among young women (15-
29 years old)
Aboriginal and Black women have also been identified as vulnerable populations
Preventative Measures
Have regular mamograms
Get regular checkups and screenings
Early detection is important for treating breast, cervical, uterine and ovarian
cancer
Plan for pregnancies - Nutritional needs folic acid (3 months before
pregnancy)
While you are pregnant see your healthcare provider regularly
Men’s Health
Many of the health conditions that affect men can be prevented or treated with early
diagnosis
Colour Blindness
Approximately 8% of men are colorblind
Approx. 0.5% of women are colorblind
Lung Cancer
The leading cause of cancer deaths among men
Mostly due to cigarette smoking
Prostrate Cancer
The third most common cause of death from cancer in men of all ages
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