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Final

Study Guide for Final


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTA02H3
Professor
Anna Walsh
Study Guide
Final

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HLTB03 Notes II
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Battered Women ± women subjected to repeated attacks or multiple blows by a partner
Cardiovascular Diseases ± all diseases of the circulatory system, including ischemic heart disease and
stroke
Chronic Conditions ± conditions having duration of at least six months
Dowry Deaths ± GHDWKVUHODWHGWRXQPHWGHPDQGVRIZHDOWKIURPDEULGVIDPLO\E\DKXVEDQG¶VIDPLO\
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burned to death by overheated oil or the bursting of a cooking stove
Honour Killings ± the killing of rape victims, women suspected of adultery, women who refuse to marry
the person chosen by their families or women who refuse to stay in an abusive marriage, dowry
deaths
Hospital Separations ± patients who are discharged from or die in hospitals
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ± a complex set of symptoms in the aftermath of a
psychologically traumatic event and experience characteristic symptoms include: depression,
trouble concentrating, sleep disturbances, and memory impairment
Social Surgery ± female circumcision; the cultural practice of surgically altering female genitalia,
including genital mutilation (circumcision and infibulations)
Violence ± an act of involving force or coercion, with the intention of causing physical psychological and
emotional harm
Explanations of Gender Differences in Morbidity and Mortality:
1) Artefact ± statistics not real, women take notice of symptoms more than men do
2) Genetic Causation ± sex chromosomes and hormones
3) Social Causation ± economic inequalities, socially constructed gender roles,
Two hypotheses used to explain difference in health status:
1) Differential Exposure Hypothesis ± it suggest that health status differences are attributable to
the different social locations (and resulting life experiences) of immigrant and non-immigrant
older adults, and to their differential exposure to various lifestyle behaviours like physical activity
level, smoking, alcohol consumption, and quality of diet
2) Differential Vulnerability Hypothesis ± it suggests that health status differences are attributable
to differences in immigrant and non-LPPLJUDQWROGHUDGXOWYXOQHUDELOLW\WKHLUUHDFWLRQWR
certain social structural and lifestyle determinants
Violence against Women Various Stages:
Prenatal Sex-Selective abortions, battering during pregnancy, coerced pregnancy (rape during
war)
Infancy Female infanticide, emotional & physical abuse, differential access to food and
medical care
Childhood Genital Mutilation, Incest and sexual abuse, child prostitution, differential access to
food, medical care and education
Adolescence Dating and courtship violence, economically coerced sex, sexual abuse in the
workplace, sexual harassment, rape, forced prostitution
Reproductive Abuse of women by intimate partners, marital rape, dowry abuse and murders, partner
homicide, psychological abuse, sexual abuse in workplace, sexual harassment, rape
abuse of women with disabilities
Old Age Abuse of widows, elder abuse (which mostly affects women)
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Bodywork ± all effort expended in the maintenance or improvement of physician appearance and health;
shopping for cosmeticVDQGFORWKLQJG\HLQJRQH¶VKDLUH[HUFLVLQJFRVPHWLFVXUJHU\DQGGLHWLQJDOO
fall into this category
Demedicalization ± the removal of condition or activity from the category of disease, at which point the
medical profession no longer has the sole responsibility for defining and treaing that condition
Discourse ± the broad linguistic frameworks within which people perceive, think and speak about the
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Medicalization ± the process that defines a condition or activity as a disease or an illness; treatment of
condition is then considered the responsibility of the medical profession
Phallocentric sexuality ± the dominant view of sexuality that restricts sexual pleasure to penetration and
heterosexual intercourse
Plastic/Postmodern Body ± a term used by cultural theorists to describe a new view of the body in
postmodern era. In this view, the body is seen as infinitely changeable or plastic, rather than fixed
and natural, and is used as a canvas to display identity to others
Policing ± the process by which powerful social groups, such as physicians, control others through
scrutiny and documentation (rather than force), in order to bring them into line with dominant or
³QRUPDO´VRFLDOVWDQGDUGVRIDFFHSWDELOLW\:KLOHWKHterm is borrowed from the legal sphere, it is
used by sociologists to refer to forms of social and moral, rather than legal constraint
Professionalization ± occurs when an occupational group attains monopoly over a certain area of
expertise
Social control ± the result of formal and informal rules or pressure being imposed on individuals or
groups to influence their activities and behaviours. Teasing is an example of informal social control
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Classism ± an assumption of superiority in relation to a group of people of a given rank or status (usually
socio-economic_ in the community
Corporate Violence ± behaviour and actions of persons in authority within the corporation, including
acts of omission that endanger the health and safety of employees and other persons
Feminism ± a point of view that considers women as oppressed and exploited; includes both a
commitment to changing the condition of women and the adoption of a critical perspective toward
dominant intellectual traditions and methodologies
Gendered ± of a given phenomenon, influenced and varied by the gender of persons involved ex: work,
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Intersectionality ± the interaction between forms of oppressions (such as racism and sexism) in ways that
magnify one another; ex: EHLQJUDFLDOL]HGLVQRWDQ³DGGHG´IRUPRIRSSUHVVLRQIRUDZRPDQUDWKHU
it magnifies that oppression
Multiculturalism ± DSSURDFKWRFXOWXUHDQG³GLIIHUHQFLQGLYHrse, multiracial, multilingual societies
that has arisen from the general social theory of cultural pluralism.
o Cultural pluralism ± KROGVWKDWDOOFXOWXUHVDUH³HTXDO´EXWGLIIHUHQW
o Multiculturalism ± emphasizes cultural as a determinant of behaviour anG³GLIIHUHQFH´DQGLV
often associated with cultural relativism, the idea that each culture has its own values and should
be judged by its own standards. In health care, multiculturalism has been increasingly associated
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Patriarchy ± the system of male domination over women ± the rule of husbands, male bosses and other
men in social, economic, and political institutions
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Prejudiced ± holding an unreasonable, unjustified bias; having a preconceived opinion that is usually
unfavourable
Racialization ± process by which people are labelled according to particular physical characteristics or
arbitrary ethnic or racial categories, and then dealt with in accordance with beliefs related to those
labels
o Race ± a socially constructed phenomenon based on the erroneous assumption that physical
difference such as skin colour, hair colour, and texture, and facial features are related to
intellectual, moral, or cultural superiority. The concept of race has no basis in biological reality
and as such has no meaning independent of its social definitions
Sexual Harassment - conduct that occurs in a gender-stratified context and in a context of differential
power relationship, and that often involves sexual remarks, sexual touching, demands for sex,
sexual impositions and other unwanted and offensive conduct
Violence ± an act of involving force or coercion and that causes physical, psychological or emotional
harm to others
Violence in three spheres:
Interpersonal Models (dominate) ± individual and interpersonal relations, people needing psychiatric
help as the source of violence
Family Violence Model ± couples or dyads, violence resulting from external stresses and breakdown of
family, limits understanding of role of women and social context
Gender-Politics Model ± society, violence arise from social context, influence of gender and power
relations, Feminism is insufficient and using single variable Patriarchy to explain wife abuse
overlooking same-sex relationship and men who are not violent
Mosher: Therapeutic Perspective ± combination of individual and family-oriented approach
Intersecting Oppression Perspective ± more feminist view, how other forms of oppression are
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o Inequities compound the impacts of violence ± intersecting inequities magnify violence
o Less privileged women are exposed to more forms of violence
o The less privileged a women the greater are the costs of disclosure
o The more forms of oppression a woman experiences the more constrained are her
µFKRLFH, limit options for dealing with violence
o The dynamics of inequity and violence create barriers to obtaining meaningful support in dealing
with violence, and thus sustain violence in the lives of more oppressed women
o Inequities limit access to support
o Inequities mean less appropriate support
o Inequities mean less power
o These dynamics also sustain privilege and notions of superiority and thus they distance persons of
privilege from violence
Chapter 15: Inequality, Family and Child Health
Epidemiological ± the study of factors related to the distribution of disease in a population
Infant Mortality ± death of live-born infant in the first year of life, association with both adult mortality
and life expectancy, major cause is infant mortality
Infant Mortality rate ± number of deaths in first year per 1000 live births
Life Expectancy ± length of time a person born in a given year is expected to live
Morbidity ± the distribution of sickness and disease in a given population
Mortality rate ± total number of deaths in population in a specific time period by total pop.
Perinatal Mortality ± combination of stillbirths and deaths within the first seven days of life
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