HLTA02H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Eclecticism, Scientific Control, Samuel Hahnemann
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• Medicine in the 19th century:
▪ Received most of the healthcare from family members. If complicated, they
could to regular/ irregular doctors.
▪ Regular doctors: 19th century forerunners of contemporary medical doctors.
Poorly paid and poorly trained. Ex: Allopathic doctors: regular doctors; if a
person had malaria, they would give them quinine. They would also use
heroic medicine: an aggressive system of treatment, cured illness by
bloodletting, caused extreme vomiting, or using repeated laxative and
▪ Irregular practitioners: homeopathic, midwives, etc.
▪ Field of homeopathy by Samuel Hahnemann
▪ Allocated imbalance bodily humours
▪ Started conducting controlled experiment to test phyothesis
▪ Doctors trained via apprenticeship (3-7 years)
▪ 1823: 1st medical school in Montreal (MCGILL)
▪ 1871: Jacob Biglow protested against written exams in favor of more training
▪ Lots of death due to lack of handwashing
• Beginning of medical dominance:
▪ 1795: allopathic doctors: first unsuccessful attempts
▪ 1859: homeopaths: first profession. 1861: eclectics follows
▪ 1869: Ontario health act took place: regulate practice
▪ 1874: eclectics excluded from college
▪ 1910: Flexner report
▪ 1912: Canada passed Canada medical act (due to Flexner’s report)
▪ 1906-1922: medical school in USA decreased by 162-81 (because of Flexner’s
▪ 1960: Allopathic doctors deny Homeopathic doctors representation in college
• Financially progressive: poorer people pay less of their income for services or goods
than wealthier people.
• Single-payer system: medical costs of the entire population are financed by one
source, usually the government.
• The five principles of the Canada Health Act form the cornerstone of the Canadian
health care system:
▪ Universality: all eligible residents are entitled to public health insurance
coverage on uniform terms and conditions;
▪ Portability: coverage for insured services must be maintained when an insured
person moves or travels within Canada or travels outside the country;
▪ Public administration: the health insurance plan of a province or territory
must be administered on a non-profit basis by a public authority;
▪ Accessibility: reasonable access by insured persons to medically necessary
hospital and physician services must not be impeded by financial or other
▪ Comprehensiveness: all medically necessary services provided by hospitals and
doctors must be insured.