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HLTA02H3 Study Guide - Food Bank

Health Studies
Course Code
Anna Walsh

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Suleiman Furmli HLTB03- Textbook Notes Summer 2009
HLTB03 t Fundamentals of Health
Health, Illness & Healthcare in Canada
Part 1- Overview Æ The Canadian Healthcare System and the Health Status in Canada
Mechanistic-individualistic clinical approach is dominant paradigm in medicine Æ Treatment focuses on
surgical or chemical interventions
Reductionist Approach Æ Blames illnesses on individuals, behaviors and consumption patterns
Both of these approaches obscure the social nature of disease Æ i.e. That disease is embedded in social,
economic, political and cultural contexts
Attempts to reform and transform medicine must be tied to wider strategies of change in the social
Medicare originated in the failure of the market to ensure that people received necessary medical care and
hospital services
Original Cost-sharing agreement between the federal and provincial governments discouraged
experimentation with non-medical and non-hospital forms of treatment and it discouraged provincial
governments with improving efficiency in delivery of services.
dZ(}u]vv]vPvPuvµ]vPôì[võì[ encouraged provincial governments to make
reforms at the provincial level through Regionalization.
National Forum on Health (NFH) Æ Created in 1994 and intended to help involve the public to improve the
healthcare system and the health status of the population
Was influential in 2 ways: (1) Development and use of expanded and improved health information systems
& (2) Targeted Funding
Romanow commission Æ 2001 Æ Confirmed and highlighted 4 objective guides to good health policy Æ 1)
Sustainability, 2) Access, 3) Quality, 4) Accountability
Supported the principle of a public payer and rejected options to increased privatization
Health Care Policy = Treatment of illness and injury
Public Health Policy = Preventing illness and injury
Public Health Concerns first started because of rise in British industrial Capitalism, urbanization and

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Suleiman Furmli HLTB03- Textbook Notes Summer 2009
Epidemiological Transition Æ change in pattern of disease in a country from infectious and communicable
(ex. Flu, smallpox, etc.) to non-communicable (ex. Cancers and CVD)
5 Main parts to the current Health System:
1. Health Surveillance
2. Disease and Injury Prevention
3. Health Protection
4. Population Health Assessment
5. Health Promotion
Chapter 1 t Sociology, Medicine, Health and Illness: An Overview
Localized Pathology Æ Notion that ill health could be caused by the malfunctioning of one particular part of
the body machinery
Work of bacteriologists and other scientists undeniably had a positive impact on the control of infectious
diseases and led to improvements of medical practice Æ BUT there is doubt about the historical
importance of these discoveries
This is because it is argued that the major decline in mortality and morbidity was due to better nutrition,
sanitation and other environmental improvements
Flexner Report (1910) ÆOne of the reasons for the ascendancy of scientific laboratory-based medicine and
the dominant position of Allopathic Medicine ÆMethod of treating disease using agents that produce
different effects than that of the disease being treated
As a result of this report:
1) 92 Medical Schools were shut-down or reorganized
2) The norm for medical education became laboratory-based medicine
3) Reduced competition and higher income for doctors
4) Formation of medical associations
5) Tightening of licensing standards
6) Marginalization of CAM
Corporate interest and funding were also vested in this report because:
1. Justification of environment and workers to allow for high profits
2. Diverted away attention from illness-generating condition of capitalist production and class
3. Need for a workforce healthy enough to participate in the production process
Health and Illness:

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Suleiman Furmli HLTB03- Textbook Notes Summer 2009
Mechanistic definition of health Æ Normal condition of body and mind (with all parts functioning normally)
and disease defined as a definite and morbid process having a characteristic strain of symptoms t it may affect
the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology and prognosis may be know or unknown
Ill health is defined as the malfunctioning of a mechanical system, and treatment consists of surgical, chemical
and electrical interventions to restore the machine to normal working order
Workers are kept healthy so long as the cost of health care is less than the cost of replacing them.
It is always the individuals who became sick, rather than the social, economic or environmental factors which
cause them to be so.
Reductionism in Medicine
Reductionist View of health Æ Cause of disease lies in individual lifestyles and behaviors
Reduction in mortality of individuals would focus their attention on changing those aspects of their lifestyles
that are injurious to their health
Social Production of Illness
Social epidemiology and the environmental approach to health are in conflict with the biological and individual
(reductionist) approach
Belief that Human health and illness are embedded in economic, social and cultural contexts.
Material and social conditions that produce illness and mortality include social class, economic cycles, socially
produced stress, production processes and working conditions
Engels Æ Researched working-oo](ÁooÁ}l[ZoZv(ÇÆ Root of illness were in
industrial production and social environment Æ Focused on link between Environmental Toxins, Poor housing
conditions, poor nutrition and working conditions with occupational diseases and injuries
Virchow Æ Focused on the social and economic deprivations of working class life and focused on inadequate
housing, poor nutrition and inadequate clothing.
Engels focused on structural contradictions of production, profit and safety, Virchow focused on class
inequalities and social distribution and the consumption of resources
Socioeconomic inequalities are also linked to stress Æ Those of lower socio-economic status are not only
subject to more stress but also have fewer resources to cope with it
Gender and racial inequalities produce social variability in the health status of men and women in racial groups
Discrimination can affect the health status of racial minorities in a number of ways, including differential life
chances, low socio-economic status, social exclusion and unequal access to healthcare
Modes and Types of Analyses:
Contaminated water problems, security of the food supply and HIV/AIDS, concerns about new infectious
diseases such as SARS, Bird Flu, West Nile brought into focus that limitations of the existing system and calls
for the development of a broad public health strategy to deal with these diseases
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