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HLTB15H3 Study Guide - Biomedical Model

Health Studies
Course Code
Iva Zovkic

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Midterm Review Key Terms
Lecture # 3: Models of Health and Illness
Health: physiological, psychological, mental, physical and social well being
Illness: Subjective, Discomfort, Emotion, Social Functioning, Pain
WHO (1948) Definition of Health: Health is a STATE of COMPLETE PHYSICAL,
MENTAL, AND SOCIAL WELL BEING, not merely the ABSENCE of disease or infirmity
o Missing: economic, political aspect of health, spiritual well being, the word state
implies that it is current in the moment, subject to change
Original Model of Health
o Absence of disease
o Biomedical model of health
o Specific etiology
o Body as a machine
o No recognition of the subjective experience of illness or diseases
o Psychological disturbances
o Scientific methods, objectivity and physical and chemical data
New models of health involves social contexts and more than simply absence of disease
o Systems/Social Model of Health: Social, Cultural, Political, Economic
Focus on wellness, complex of experience & situation
Disease: It is diagnosable, pathological reason
Illness: subjective, feelings of discomfort, pain or unease, more of a personal experience
Bio psychosocial (BPS) Model of Health: Biological, Sociological and Psychological all
contribute to health outcomes
Health Outcomes:
o Health Status: physical and mental health status, specific, measurable
o Health related quality of life more broad, physical and social functioning,
well-being, how a person would rate their health
Examples of Health Outcomes
o Survival Periods, Biochemical indicators, relapses, mortality, symptoms
o Social Variables: Sick Days, Functional Capacity, Bed Days, Hospital Admissions,
ER Visits
o Psychological Factors: Discomfort, Dissatisfaction, Perceived Health
Generic Health Outcomes
o Clinical Markers Specific Symptoms Impact of Disease-specific problems
generic functioning, well being and evaluation
Positive Measures of Health: Well-being, ability, comfort, quality of life
Lay Knowledge of Health knowledge that is derived from individuals that are not
part of the profession
o Absence of disease, Feeling strong, Functional capacity, Being fit and physically
active, Being able to cope with stress, Socially active, Mental health
Disability Paradox: Those with severe disabilities and apparent poor quality of life
according to outsiders, when asked they report high quality and satisfaction of life
o Adjustment
o Self Efficacy
o Supportive Relationships
How do people define illness according to Baxter (1983), most common are
Infection, Heredity, Agents and Environment
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