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HLTB15H3 Study Guide - Deductive Reasoning, Nomothetic, Inductive Reasoning

Health Studies
Course Code
Iva Zovkic

of 4
Midterm Review Key Terms
Lecture # 4: Social Factors, Health and Illness
Social Class: arrangements of people in society as economic groups, hierarchical
Socio-economic status (SES): societal status using factors or measurements such as
income levels, educational attainment, no hierarchy, not classifying based on broad
economic groups
Social causation hypothesis: factors associated with socioeconomic status influence
health, people that have more money or better occupation have better health status
Selection hypothesis: life course perspective; pathway of a persons life course, people
from lower SES children, less opportunities, may in the long term lead to different
occupations which may lead to future health issues
Crisis theory: homeostasis and equilibrium
Cognitive-Appraisal model of coping: how an individual copes is determined by his or
her appraisal, resources and support
Social support: Availability of someone who offers comfort; Emphasize satisfaction
with available support; Encompassed within broader concept of social capital
Social capital: community of reciprocal social support networks and resources and
is embodied in measures of social networks, social support and the availability of
community resources
Self-efficacy: Belief in one’s ability to successful complete a task or doing something
Social Stigma: social reaction leads to a SPOILT identity and LABELLING
Difference between social interactionism vs. symbolic interactionism
Sick Role carries two rights and obligations for the sick person
o Exemption from normal social roles and responsibilities
o No blame for failure to fulfill them
o Individual must want to return to normal roles
o Must cooperate with health professionals with the aim of recovery
Illness Behavior: what a person does when sick seek medications or consultations
Health Behavior: behavior to promote or prevent sickness
Gender Theory: women have higher rates of morbidity and medical consultations but
men have more mortality, have higher rates of mental illness
Cultural theory: Americans are more invasive, French have more holistic treatments,
and preoccupation with the liver, Germans have a preoccupation with circulation and
even treat lower blood pressure
Cost Benefit approach: social factors impact the amount of time and resources available
to seek help and alter behavior
Health Belief Model: people’s behavior related to:
o Perception of how severe their illness is
Individual’s belief about the seriousness or severity of a disease
Based on medical information or knowledge or beliefs a person has
o How susceptible they are to the illness
Personal risk powerful perception in prompting people to adopt
healthier behaviors
o Costs and benefits incurred in seeks a specific action
Person’s opinion of the value or usefulness of a new behavior in
decreasing the risk of developing a disease
o Trigger dependent
For change
Individual’s evaluation of the obstacles in the way of him or her
adopting a new behavior
Most significant in determining behavior change, benefits outweigh the
consequences of continuing with the old behavior
Modifying Variables: culture, age, education, SES, knowledge, ethnicity, gender, skill,
Cues to action: illness of a family member, events, people, campaigns
Theory of Attribution
Locus of Control
o Internal based on information, ability or urge
o External influenced by opportunity or environments
Protection Motivation Theory
o Severity, Vulnerability, Response Effectiveness, and Self Efficacy contribute to
behavioral intentions and subsequent behaviors
o Coping Appraisal: Self Efficacy, Response Effectiveness
o Threat Appraisal: Severity, Vulnerability, Fear
o Two Sources of Information: Environmental, Intrapersonal
o Outcome: Adaptive coping response, or maladaptive coping response
Health Action Process Model