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HLTB15H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Clinical Trial, Qualitative Property, Statistical Hypothesis Testing

3 pages257 viewsWinter 2015

Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB15H3
Professor
Maya Obadia
Study Guide
Final

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LECTURE 1:
Positivist Research Interpretivist Research
Relies specifically on scientific evidence
to reveal the nature of how study operates
Deductive reasoning
How meanings are constructed, managed
by people in different social contexts
Inductive reasoning
Ontological assumptions: (nature of reality)
Universal reality is independent of us
Can be discoverable and objectively
measured
Ontological assumptions:
Reality is negotiated, socially and
historically constructed and not
objectively measured
Epistemological assumptions: (how we come to
know things about the world)
Knowledge must be scientifically verified
and can be proven using scientific method
Self-constructivist:
Acknowledges that disease and treatment
processes have both subjective and
objective matters (hence mixed methods)
Features:
Determinism
Empiricism
Skepticism
Objectivity
Features:
Interpretivist
Naturalistic
Subjectivity
Complexity
Component:
Quantification
Reliability
Generalizability
Component:
Validity
Trustworthiness and credibility
Aims to understand the participants, not
to generalize
Saturation is key
Methods of this research approach:
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
Pre/Post
Cohort/Sectional
Surveys
Structured Interviews
Systematic Reviews
Methods of this research approach:
Semi/Unstructured interviews
Participant observation
Focus groups
Discourse and content analysis (non-
systematic)
Advantages:
Reduces bias via randomization and
blinding
When people’s lives are at stake
Replicability and rigor
Advantages:
Flexible and descriptive – reflexive
Thinking outside the box
Acknowledges conflict subjectivity and
the idea that there are many sides to a
story its how they fit together
Triangulation and saturation are guides
Disadvantages:
Describes a phenomenon in a vacuum and
not in a real life setting
Does not address people lived experience
(complex, subjective, and social)
Is it really possible to remove all of life’s
influence in blinding and randomization?
Objectivity is possibly an unattainable
goal
Disadvantages:
May make unintended or justified
generalizations from the accounts of small
#s
Purposive sampling may be viewed as
biased from researcher assumptions and
self-selections
Whose story is it? Researchers?
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