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Required readings for final exam. best of luck and have fun!

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat
Study Guide

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Chapter 14 Bowling
Health Research
Unit 14: Preparation of Quantitative data for coding and analysis
-method of conceptualizing research data and classifying them into meaningful and relevant
categories for the participants in the study
-a number is assigned to the category which is called the code
-coding of quantitative data should be carried out at the end of the data collection period, once
all the codes have been finalized
-if previous knowledge was used to construct response categories before the instrument was
administered to respondents then it is called deductive coding
-when there is no previous knowledge it is called inductive coding
-basic rules for the development of the coding scheme (coding frame) for quantitative data are
that the codes must be mutually exclusive and must be applied constantly
Coding boxes
-allocated for each question, each box can only contain 1 number
-eg. 40 would have 2 boxes
Coding transfer sheets
-used if the investigator doesnt want to clutter the questionnaire with numerical codes and
coding boxes
Code Book
-used for quantitative data
-a master copy of the questionnaire with the question number the question, the full range of
codes, the number of columns for each response, variable label
Numerical values for codes
-qualitative data has to be given numerical value
-can be ad hoc or conventional (this one allows for comparison because other studies also use

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Coding open questions
-have to be grouped by theme and coded
-might be given more than a code to ensure that all items mentioned have been accounted for
-might simple code for the nature of response (positive, neutral or negative)
Coding closed questions
-require that any groupings should be defined before the data are collected
-response is then allocated to the pre-defined category with a number assigned
-important at the design stage of the questionnaire to ensure that a recorded response is always
Checking returned questionnaires
-2 coders should be used to code the entire set independently and someone should check both
Data entry onto computer
-optical scanners can be used to code directly
-verification involves 2 people independently entering data
Cleaning the data
-need to eliminate the more obvious errors that will have occurred during the data collection,
coding and input stages
Range Checks
-for data fields containing information about a continuous variable, observations should within a
specified range
Consistency Checks
-certain combinations of within-range values of different variables are either logically impossible
or very unlikely
Check for bias in the analyses
Response bias

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-information should be collected about non-responders in order that the difference between the
responders and non-responders can be analyzed
-age bias
Interview bias
-occurs when more than one interviewer or observer used
Missing values and data checks
-2 types of missing values
1.where a question is deliberately blank because it did not apply to the individual
2.where a reply was expected but not given
-used 9 for inadequate responses when coding or 99 or 999 etc
-used 8 for does not apply” responses when coding or 88 or 88 etc
Computer packages for the analysis of quantitative data
-for straightforward analysis SPSS used
-hierarchical data easier to analyze using other programs
The analysis
Statistical tests for the analysis
-univariate statistics (descriptive stats for the analysis or description of one variable
-bivariate statistics (descriptive stats for the analysis of the association between 2 variables)
-multivariable statistics (techniques which allow for the measurement of the effects of one
variable on an outcome to be measured, while controlling for the effects of other variables, thus
removing their effects)
Stages in the analysis
-descriptive stats should be first in order to be able to describe the findings and look at any
-results of bivariate analyses will inform the investigator about whether multivariable analyses
should be performed with any of the variables, depending on the type of data and the aims of
the study
-trends are then examined
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