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HLTB21H3 Study Guide - Tuberculous Cervical Lymphadenitis, Percivall Pott, Lupus Vulgaris


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Question 1: Describe the contributions of Paul Ehrich and Jean-Antoine Villemin to the
understanding of tuberculosis. (2 marks)
-Ehrich: derived a method of staining ( red fuchshin followed by treatment with nitric acid ) done
so because it is gram positive and is weakly stained by the Gram method because of its waxy skin
wal l -> he showed the clinical symptoms in 1887, and demonstrated that he was infected
-Villemin : from France, followed Laennec in saying that tuberculosis was a specific disease
caused by a specific agent, in 1865 he caused tuberculosis in rabbits by injecting them with matter
from human tubercles (from the lung cavity of a tuberculosis paitent who had died 33 hours
earlier) -> two other rabbits served as controls and were injected with tissue fluid from a burn
blister
- his announcement was greeted with derision and there was still argument s that consumption was
due to conditions of poverty and overindulgence.
Question 2: Identify at least four examples of M. tuberculosis possibly aff licting populations
from Antiquity to before the Middle Ages.
- TB was limited to animals in prehistoric times
- Archaeol ogical evidence indicates that tuberculosis aff licted prehistoric men and women in Eurasia
and Africa at least from the Neolit hic period
- Stone Age skeletons with lesions which may have been caused by tuberculosis of the spine have
been unearthered in Britain and Germany
-Spinal tuberculosis (Potts disease) found in Egyptian mummies from 3700 BC to 1000 BC (2400
BC from sildes)
-Description of disease in Chinese may date back to 2700 BC
-Hindu texts dating from 1200 BC or earlier described treatments for pulmonary tuberculosis and
scrofula
-Tablet in the library of Assyrian King Ashurbanipal (668-626 BC) described the disease
-Hippocrates (470-380 BC) described the disease phthisis
-Aristotle (384-322 BC) suggested it might be contagi ous and due to bad and heavy breath”
-Mummified body in China from the early Han dynasty (206 BC – 7 AD) displayed tuberculosis
scars on her lungs
-Native Americ a ns suffered the disease as early as 800 BC
-Chilean mummies show evidence of pulmonary lesions from 290 AD
Question 3: What are Potts disease, scrofula, lupus vulgaris and phthisis? (2 marks)
-Potts disease : the fusion of the vertebrae and defor mation of the spine due to tuberculosis, this
may lead to a hunchback, named after Sir Percival Pott
-Scrofula : tuberculosis affect i ng the lymph nodes in the neck which causes swelling which is
called scrofula
-Lupus vulgaris : is tuberculosis affecting the skin, causing painful tuberculosis skin lesions
-Phthisis : identified by Hippocrates from to waste”, individual is emaciated and debilitated and
had red cheeks, sputum is thick and sometimes contains blood, breathing is like a flute, skin is
cold - characterized as tuberculosis affecting the lungs (pulmonary)
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