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Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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Chapter 2: Plagues, the Price of Being Sedentary
Zoonoses/ Zoonotic Infections- animal infections transmitted to humans
Hunter- gathers – small groups , human to human transmission were absent
3 surge to human population:
1) Tool – Making Revolution : killing mea t
2) Agriculture revolution: change from hunter-gather to farming, ir r igation, human waste as
fertilizer, politics, banking, urbanization (city building), domestication of animals
3) Scientific- Industrial Revolution
Impact of disease
-population density
-character and quality of the water supply, food and shelt er
-frequency of contact among individuals
-human contact with animals ( big 5 – sheep, goat, pigs , cows, hors es)
-”accident of geog raphy” - different plants and animals available in dif ferent areas
Examples of domestication diseases
-Measles – dogs and cattle smallpox – cows , pigs and fowl
-Tuberculosis – bovine TB
-HIV – chimpanzees
-SARS- civet cats
-hematuria- snails
Chapters 3: Six Plagues of Antiquity
The disease of Antiquity (500 BC- 700AD)- characterized by parasites with long lived
transmission stages, as well as thos e involving person to pers on contact
Endemic- requires greater than few hundred thousand in population
The Pharaoh's Plague 1900BC- Father of Arabian Medicine, Avicenna
-Hematuria – causes blood to appear in the ur ine, enlarged abdomens
-snail fever – blood f lukes disease – well water in Jericho was infested with infected snails
-existed in tropical and subtropical parts of world, Eygpt ( not Mesopotamia open)
-involves feces, urine, water, snails and f latworm
-transmission stages of parasite are microscopic and unnoticed for thousands of
(Theodor Bilharz- discovered with worm Disomum Haematobin)
-symptoms : infections occurs within 1-2m , fever, chills, sweating, headache, and cough.
-6-12m the accumulation of eggs in blood stream caus e organ enlargement (liver &
-Schistosomiasis- arithmetic disease, more severe symptoms when more wor ms present
-still exists today in Afr ica
-cure: educate population, treatment of infected (no preventive vaccine). Control over
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