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Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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HLTA01 Note 1:
Chapter 1: The Nature of Plagues
Legionaries Disease 1976 – Turner
-in the lobby of the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel
bacteria: Legionella in aerosolized
-symptoms: high fever, chill, headache, muscle aches, dry cough, chest pains, shortness of
breath, vomiting, and diarrhea
-death: lungs filled with fluid and pus, confusion, disorientation, hallucinations and loss
of memory
Toxic Shock Syndrome 1979- Mary Benton (TSS)
-isolated to females, tampons cross linked with carboxymethyl cellulose with polyester
-bacteria: staphylococcus auras
-symptoms: nausea, chill, diarrhea, headache, sore throat, brownish discharge pelvic
-death: respiratory failure
Transmission- the movement of parasite from host to host (direct or indirect – vectors)
vector- animate intermediaries ex: flies , mosquitoes, fleas, ticks etc.
-transmission by vector- mechanical (the bite wound of a mosquitoes) or developmental
( parasites that grow in snails or mosquitoes)
Parasite- obtain resources needed for their growth and reproduction, parasite may harm host, but
may not outright kill them [ ex: malaria parasite, red blood cell killer, while blood cell killer
Micro parasite: 1600 microscope
Prokaryotes- 1-5 um in size, free living or parasitic
-Bacteria-spherical (coccus), rod shaped (bacillus), corkscrew (spirillum or spirochete)
Protozoa- 5-15 um in size, one – celled eukaryotes, can lead an independent existence(in
water ) or be parasite
virus- smaller than bacteria, must be in living cell to reproduce, neither cell nor organism
Macro Parasite: do not require microscope to see
-composed of many cells [ ex: flatworm, roundworm, tapeworm, mosquitoes, files, lice]
-usually do not multiple within an infected host ( except in larvae stages in an
intermediate hosts) instead, produce infective stages that usually pass out of the body of one
host before transmission to another.
Plagues and Parasites
-Incubation Period- the period in which the disease is not active
Carriers- infectious but asymptomatic individuals, can infect others but do not experience
symptoms themselves.
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