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Etiology, Clinical Manifestations, Treatments Exam Review

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat
Study Guide

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Plagues and Diseases
Etiology, Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
Plagues of Antiquity
- Bubonic Plague [1346 - 1542]
- 2 to 5 days till symptoms
- Lymph node infection with buboes
- Fever feelings + Seizures
- Pneumonic Plague:
- Severe cough, frothy, bloody sputum
- Difficulty Breathing
- Septicemic Plague:
- Abdominal pain
- Anything to deal with circulation processes
- Organ failure, nasea, diarrhea, blood clot
- Black Death
- All 3 plagues
- 30-75% infection mortality rate of bubonic, 90-95% with pneumonic [two most
- First struck ports and then trade routes

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- Sylvatic Cycle:
- Infection between domestic rodents <-> infective fleas <-> wild rodents -> Humans
- Pneumonic can be airborne
- Leprosy
- Agent: Mycobacterium Leprae
- Chronic Disease / Slow multiplying bacillus, Double time: 12-14 days
- Incubation: 3-5 years
- Thought to be transmitted vida droplets from nose
- Not highly infectious and maybe genetically related with susceptibility
- Mainly affects skin, nerves and mucous membranes
- Clinical Manifestations
- Indeterminate [IL]
- Skin lesions [small, no nerve dmg]
- Loss of sense is rare, majority will develop, those with strong immunity
recovers or turns latent
- Tuberculoid [TT] - 1-2 yrs after exposure
- Deep lesions [nerve dmg / imparement, affected nerves thicken]
[Nerve dmg = less feeling]
- Untreated patients rarely form leprotamous after many years [LL]
- Borderline Tuberculoid [BT]
- Deep lesions but smaller and more [same nerve damage effects + thickening]

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- May stay or revert
- Borderline Lepromatous [BL]
- Many lesions, papules, plaques and nodules [same nerve damage effects]
- Looks like inverted saucers
- Lepromatous [LL]
- Most severe, never reverts
- Numerous lesions of all kinds
- Skin thickens, losing brows / lashes, photophobia and enlarged nodes +
deformed extremities, hoarse voice
- Treatment:
- Based on symptoms
- Chaulmoogra Nut, Promin, Dapsone, MDT
- Tuberculosis
- Agent: Tubercle Bacillus
- Type: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, an acid fast bacillus requiring specific ways of
identifying [Affects the spine]
- Type I: Found in india, weakest
- Type A: Africa, China, Japan Europe, NA
- Type B: NA, Eu
- Only bovine types infect humans [suggested through ingestion], leading to
pulmonary TB
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