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HLTB21H3 Study Guide - Anopheles, Roman Campagna, Plasmodium Vivax


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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HLTA01
Plagues and Peoples
Chapter 7 Malaria, Another Fever Plague
- Fever plague killed over half of the people who ever lived on the planet
- Someone dies every 10 seconds mostly children under 5 in Africa
- 300 million 500 million cases only 10% outside of Africa
o 2-3 million deaths
A Look Back
- Recorded in Ebers papyrus (1570 BC)
o Described: enlarged spleens, periodic fevers, headache, chills, and fevers
- Most likely came from Africa to Europe by either Nile Valley or close contact between
Europeans and citizens of Asia Minor
- Hippocrates: 2 types of malaria
o Recurrent fevers every third day (benign tertian)
o Fevers on every fourth day (quartan)
- Believed to be from vapors emanating from the marshes (Roman Campagna)
- Reached Spain and Russia by 12th century
- In England in 14th century
- Brought to New World by European explorers, conquistadors, colonists and African
slaves
- Worldwide in 1800
- Laveran examined blood from soldier suffering from malaria and found transparent
globules containing malaria pigment in red blood cells, and sometimes mobile filaments
coming from clear spherical bodies(exflagellation)
- Mosquito carrying human malaria anopheles
- Ross, Manson and Koch discovered mosquito as vector
The Disease Malaria
- 4 malarias for humans
o Plasmodium falciparum, P. v ivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae
Transmitted through bite of infected female anopheline mosquito
- Pathology due to parasite multiplication
- Primary attack headache, fevers, anorexia, malaise, and myalgia
- Then paroxysms of chills, fever and profuse sweating
- ‘great imitator’
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