HLTB21H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Blood Transfusion, Tabes Dorsalis, Public Health Genomics

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20 Dec 2010
School
Department
Course
Lecture 1
Plagues and People -Professor C. Barakat-Haddad
Office BV 500, 8-10am Wednesdays
-Considers the origins, antiquity and impact of plagues on human societies from cultural,
evolutionary, and ecological perspectives.
-Aim: to understand why plagues emerge and how their occurrence is intimately linked to
behaviour
-Human activities have a huge impact on plagues and its useful to understand the cause
and effect of these issues
-Goal: to provide insight into the struggles of attaining disease control and challenges of
forecasting emerging plagues
-What causes the diseases, how are they classified and general information about plagues
-What major effect did they have, understanding the effects of these plagues while looking
at different perspectives, emerging factor of certain plagues
Lecture 2- plagues
Parasites
organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism and that does
not contribute to the survival of its host, only considered parasites if it inflects harm
Virus
ultimate micro-parasite smaller than bacteria; neither cells not organisms; can only
reproduce within their host
Macroparasites composed of many cells; does not multiply in host, instead cycles
through transmission stageseggs and larvaewhich pass into the external
environment, their size differs
Transmission
- movement of a parasite from host to host, sharing cups, needles
Incubation period
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the interval of time required for development of a disease, between exposure and
development of disease, shows symptoms/signs at the end of the period,
Latent period
- seemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness, after
which disease may occur, dormancy period
Parasite virulence
- capacity of a parasite to cause disease
Zoonotic infections
- animal infections that can be transmitted to humans
3 components that must be present for a disease to occur, Host- immunity, genetics
and nutrition, eg. person Agent- Biological, physical, chemical , psychosocial, rate of
growth, persistence, eg. Bacterium. Environment- promote exposure,
eg.contaminated water
- Direct occurs through direct contact, e.g. from person to person
- Indirect through a common route / vector, e.g. contaminated air / water, mosquito
Portal of entry:
Dermal through the skin, e.g. fungi
Ingestion through the mouth, e.g. E.coli in water
Inhalation during respiration, e.g. particulate matter
Exposure without infection- typhoid Mary, Mary Mellon, 1906, became cook for
wealthy New York Banker, she was actually a carrier of Typhoid germ, no infection,
signs/symptoms, eventually people go stick, sanitary expert was hired and deduced
that she was a carrier of typhoid virus, 3 years in confinement, was released, lost
track of where she went, posed as a different person, Mrs.Brown, maternity hospital,
she was a cook, went to 25 differnt doctors/nurses until people recognized her, put
her away for 23 yeras and died in confinement, after her death New York State
stated that other people were also under surveillance, sub-clinical diseases,
Rabies affects central nervous system, transmitted through saliva, severe to fatal,
Measles common skin rash, transmitted from
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Tuberculosis infectious disease that most commonly attacks the lungs
Three main types
Endemic usual occurrence of a given disease within a given geographical area
Epidemic occurrence of a disease in excess of normal expectancy in a defined
region
Pandemic worldwide epidemic
Herd immunity resistance of a group to an attack by a disease to which a large
proportion of the members are immune; important for immunization programs
For measles estimate that 94% of the population must be immune
Incubation period interval from receipt of infection to the time of onset of clinical
illness
Attack rate ratio of the number of people at risk in whom a certain illness develops
to the total number of people at risk
In the past, all disease outbreaks were referred to as plagues
Derived from Latin word plaga which means to strike a blow that wounds.
Today, we refer to such a disease outbreak as an epidemic, comes from Greek word
epi’ (“among”) and demos (“the people”).
Acceptable definition of plague: highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease.
Plague is a serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually
transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas, comes from medical definition
Belief that our ancestors hunter-gatherers were healthy
Throughout human history, a lot of changes to lifestyle and diets, ancestors were
believed to live up to 18-23 age, vegetarians only, eventually parasites increased
however life expectancy also increased, human population remained really small
People started to evolve and change, settled to one place, increase of terms in
diseases, but since population was small, nothing really happened, birth rates were
fairly low
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