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HLTB21H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Blood Transfusion, Tabes Dorsalis, Public Health Genomics


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Study Guide
Final

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Lecture 1
Plagues and People -Professor C. Barakat-Haddad
Office BV 500, 8-10am Wednesdays
-Considers the origins, antiquity and impact of plagues on human societies from cultural,
evolutionary, and ecological perspectives.
-Aim: to understand why β€˜plagues’’ emerge and how their occurrence is intimately linked to
behaviour
-Human activities have a huge impact on plagues and its useful to understand the cause
and effect of these issues
-Goal: to provide insight into the struggles of attaining disease control and challenges of
forecasting emerging plagues
-What causes the diseases, how are they classified and general information about plagues
-What major effect did they have, understanding the effects of these plagues while looking
at different perspectives, emerging factor of certain plagues
Lecture 2- plagues
Parasites
– organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism and that does
not contribute to the survival of its host, only considered parasites if it inflects harm
Virus
– ultimate micro-parasite – smaller than bacteria; neither cells not organisms; can only
reproduce within their host
Macroparasites – composed of many cells; does not multiply in host, instead cycles
through transmission stages–eggs and larvae–which pass into the external
environment, their size differs
Transmission
- movement of a parasite from host to host, sharing cups, needles
Incubation period
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the interval of time required for development of a disease, between exposure and
development of disease, shows symptoms/signs at the end of the period,
Latent period
- seemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness, after
which disease may occur, dormancy period
Parasite virulence
- capacity of a parasite to cause disease
Zoonotic infections
- animal infections that can be transmitted to humans
3 components that must be present for a disease to occur, Host- immunity, genetics
and nutrition, eg. person Agent- Biological, physical, chemical , psychosocial, rate of
growth, persistence, eg. Bacterium. Environment- promote exposure,
eg.contaminated water
- Direct – occurs through direct contact, e.g. from person to person
- Indirect – through a common route / vector, e.g. contaminated air / water, mosquito
Portal of entry:
Dermal – through the skin, e.g. fungi
Ingestion – through the mouth, e.g. E.coli in water
Inhalation – during respiration, e.g. particulate matter
Exposure without infection- typhoid Mary, Mary Mellon, 1906, became cook for
wealthy New York Banker, she was actually a carrier of Typhoid germ, no infection,
signs/symptoms, eventually people go stick, sanitary expert was hired and deduced
that she was a carrier of typhoid virus, 3 years in confinement, was released, lost
track of where she went, posed as a different person, Mrs.Brown, maternity hospital,
she was a cook, went to 25 differnt doctors/nurses until people recognized her, put
her away for 23 yeras and died in confinement, after her death New York State
stated that other people were also under surveillance, sub-clinical diseases,
Rabies – affects central nervous system, transmitted through saliva, severe to fatal,
Measles – common skin rash, transmitted from
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Tuberculosis – infectious disease that most commonly attacks the lungs
Three main types –
Endemic – usual occurrence of a given disease within a given geographical area
Epidemic – occurrence of a disease in excess of normal expectancy in a defined
region
Pandemic – worldwide epidemic
Herd immunity – resistance of a group to an attack by a disease to which a large
proportion of the members are immune; important for immunization programs
For measles – estimate that 94% of the population must be immune
Incubation period – interval from receipt of infection to the time of onset of clinical
illness
Attack rate – ratio of the number of people at risk in whom a certain illness develops
to the total number of people at risk
In the past, all disease outbreaks were referred to as plagues
Derived from Latin word β€˜plaga’ which means β€˜to strike a blow that wounds’.
Today, we refer to such a disease outbreak as an epidemic, comes from Greek word
β€˜epi’ (β€œamong”) and demos (β€œthe people”).
Acceptable definition of plague: highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease.
Plague is a serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually
transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas, comes from medical definition
Belief that our ancestors β€˜hunter-gatherers’ were healthy
Throughout human history, a lot of changes to lifestyle and diets, ancestors were
believed to live up to 18-23 age, vegetarians only, eventually parasites increased
however life expectancy also increased, human population remained really small
People started to evolve and change, settled to one place, increase of terms in
diseases, but since population was small, nothing really happened, birth rates were
fairly low
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