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Pettenkofers theory – there was a factor in the air, called x, but x could not cause disease
by itself. What was required, he said, is factor y, which was to be found in the soil. By itself,
y too did not cause disease, but when x got into the soil and united with y, it gave rise to z, a
“miasma”. (caused cholera)
He believed that cleaning up water, as well as food and fresh air would improve
Louis Pasteur (1822-2895) – microbes (yeasts, bacteria and protozoa) cause disease in
animal and humans, but they are involved in decay and fermentation
These microbes killed of silkworms
Pasteurization – method for reducing spoilage by heating and then cooling
Robert Koch (1843-1910) – along with his colleagues identified the microbial agents
responsible for anthrax, cholera, tuberculosis, diphtheria, and tetanus.
Identified causative agent for microbial0induced disease called Koch’s postulates
Koch’s postulates – parasite occurs in every case of the disease
- parasite does not occur in other diseases
- After isolation and repeated growth in pure culture, the parasite is able to produce the
same disease when introduced into a healthy animal
Symptoms – diarrhea leading to shock, producing “rice water” stools, vomiting,
convulsions, and muscle cramps, but little abdominal pain.
Origin of word – cholera is a Greek word meaning “gutter of a roof”. Or Hebrew and
Arabic words “choleh rah” meaning bad illness
Cholera is a water or food borne disease that does not manifest itself until the “germ” enters
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