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Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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Pettenkofers theory there was a factor in the air, called x, but x could not cause disease
by itself. What was required, he said, is factor y, which was to be found in the soil. By itself,
y too did not cause disease, but when x got into the soil and united with y, it gave rise to z, a
miasma. (caused cholera)
He believed that cleaning up water, as well as food and fresh air would improve
Louis Pasteur (1822-2895) microbes (yeasts, bacteria and protozoa) cause disease in
animal and humans, but they are involved in decay and fermentation
These microbes killed of silkworms
Pasteurization method for reducing spoilage by heating and then cooling
Robert Koch (1843-1910) along with his colleagues identified the microbial agents
responsible for anthrax, cholera, tuberculosis, diphtheria, and tetanus.
Identified causative agent for microbial0induced disease called Kochs postulates
Kochs postulates parasite occurs in every case of the disease
- parasite does not occur in other diseases
- After isolation and repeated growth in pure culture, the parasite is able to produce the
same disease when introduced into a healthy animal
Symptoms diarrhea leading to shock, producing rice water stools, vomiting,
convulsions, and muscle cramps, but little abdominal pain.
Origin of word cholera is a Greek word meaning gutter of a roof. Or Hebrew and
Arabic words choleh rah meaning bad illness
Cholera is a water or food borne disease that does not manifest itself until the germ” enters
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