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Notes for test one.

2 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Parasites organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism and that does not contribute to the
survival of its host
Virus ultimate micro-parasite smaller than bacteria; neither cells not organisms; can only reproduce within their host
Macro-parasites composed of many cells; cycles through transmission stages (eggs and larvae) which pass into the
external environment
Transmission - movement of a parasite from host to host
Incubation period- interval of time required for development of a disease
Latent period-seemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness
Parasite virulence-capacity of a parasite to cause disease
Zoonotic infections - animal infections that can be transmitted to humans
HOST Immunity,Genetics,Nutrition, AGENT- Biological, physical chemical, psychosocial, Rate of growth, persistence
ENVIRONMENT- Promote exposure
Modes of Disease Transmission- - Direct transmission - from person to person
- Indirect through a common route / vector, e.g. contaminated air / water, mosquito
Portal of entry: Dermal through the skin, e.g. fungus, Ingestion through the mouth, e.g. E.coli in water, Inhalation
during respiration, e.g. particulate matter, Aspiration airway entry
Three main types of outbreaks– Endemic usual occurrence of a disease within a given geographical area, Epidemic
occurrence of a disease in excess of normal expectancy, Pandemic worldwide epidemic
Determinants of disease outbreaks: Herd immunity resistance of a group to an disease attack due to immunity, For
measles estimate that 94% of the population must be immune , Incubation period, Attack rate ratio of the #people in
whom a certain illness develops / total #people at risk
In the past, all disease outbreaks plaguesplaga i.e. to strike a blow that wounds’ Epidemic (Greek origin) - epi
among and demos the people Acceptable definition of plague: highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease. Plague is a
serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas
Plagues of Antiquity- 5000 to 700 AD, Characterised by parasites with long lived transmission stages, Person to person
contact.
The Plague of Athens- 430 BC, Route: Ethiopia, into Egypt, then Athens, Athenians defeated, High death rates including
``Pericles`` ,Identity of this plague - unknown to this day
The Roman Fever- Roman Empire established in 27 BC, Malaria became prevalent, Thought to result from the bad air,
Epidemics every 5 to 8 years, Reduced life expectancy
The Antonine plague- AD 166, Route: Mesopotamia, into Roman Empire - Europe, Symptoms, Identity of the plague not
known likely to be the first record of smallpox
The Cyprian plague- 250 AD, Originated in Ethiopia, moved to Egypt, then to the Roman colonies of North Africa.
Justinian plague- First pandemic of the Bubonic plague, Arrived in 541 in Constantine, Raged Europe, North Africa and the
Middle East until 757, 1 million people died in 5 years period, By 600 AD, mortality at 100 M in western Europe
THE PLAGUE
Impacts- Quarantine, Pest houses, Quick burials, Burning of clothes and bedding, Studies of human anatomy, Theory of
Contagion Girolamo Fracastoro (1478 1553), Changes to farming, Bigger ships - smaller crews, New diversified economy,
Local universities, Curriculum reform
Cause- Plague microbe - Yersinia pestis. , 1898 plague linked to fleas on rats, Infected rodent to flea to human.
Types of Plague- Most cases are bubonic plague , Infection - from the bite of a flea that previously fed on an infected rodent,
Bacteria spreads to lymph nodes which swell (called bubo), Septicemic plague - without the development of buboes,
Pneumonic plague - bacteria moves through the bloodstream to the lungs– rapid fatal form of the disease., Y. pestis is a high
pathogenic bacteria
Symptoms Bubonic Plague- Appear usually after 2-5 days, Include:, High fever , Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling,
Chills , General ill feeling , Muscle pain , Severe headache , Seizures
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Description
Parasites organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism and that doesnot contribute to the survival of its host Virus ultimate micro-parasite smaller than bacteria; neither cells not organisms; can only reproduce within their host Macro-parasites composed of many cells; cycles through transmission stages (eggs and larvae) which pass into the external environment Transmission - movement of a parasite from host to host Incubation period- interval of time required for development of a disease Latent period-seemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness Parasite virulence-capacity of a parasite to cause disease Zoonotic infections - animal infections that can be transmitted to humans HOST Immunity,Genetics,Nutrition, AGENT- Biological, physical chemical, psychosocial, Rate of growth, persistence ENVIRONMENT- Promote exposure Modes of Disease Transmission- - Direct transmission - from person to person - Indirect through a common route vector, e.g. contaminated air water, mosquito Portal of entry: Dermal through the skin, e.g. fungus, Ingestion through the mouth, e.g. E.coli in water, Inhalation during respiration, e.g. particulate matter, Aspiration airway entry Three main types of outbreaks Endemic usual occurrence of a disease within a given geographical area, Epidemic occurrence of a disease in excessof normal expectancy, Pandemic worldwide epidemic Determinants of disease outbreaks: Herd immunity resistance of a group to an disease attack due to immunity, For measles estimate that 94% of the population must be immune , Incubation period, Attack rate ratio of the #people in whom a certain illness develops total #people at risk In the past, all disease outbreaks plagues plaga i.e. to strike a blow that wounds Epidemic (Greek origin) - epi among and demos the people Acceptable definition of plague: highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease. Plague is a serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted
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