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Exam review notes part 1

3 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Chapter 1 & 2: Disease ecology
Definitions:
Parasites org. That grows/feeds/shelters on/in another
Virusultimate micro-parasite...
Macro-parasitesmany celled, cycles through
transmission stages, it passes through the external
environment, don’t multiply in host
Transmissionmovement from host to host
Incubation periodtime interval where the disease
develops visible multiplication, replication... (Infection to
symptoms)
Latent period inactive period b/w infection and onset of
disease (infection to contagiousness)
Parasite virulencecapacity of a parasite to cause disease
Zoonotic infections –animal infections to humans
Mature epidemics: non-infected ppl born after the
epidemic get a massive attack later on as another wave hits
What are the main factors that influence the
occurrence of a disease?
The epidemiological triad: Host, Environment and Agent
There are 3 classes of diseases:
(Type III epidemic) Class A: most infections are inapparent
(R<1)
(Type II epidemic) Class B: clinical disease is frequent: few
deaths
(Type I epidemic) Class C: Infections are usually fatal
(R>1)
Three things determine if an endemic disease
can turn into a pandemic:
1.Herd immunity
2.Incubation period
3.Attack rate: #ppl with illness/ total # ppl at risk
Legionnaires Disease (1976) Peter Turner
Lungs fill with pus, confusion loss of memory
Form aspiration of bacteria from condensers
Aspiration: act of taking into lungs while chocking
Toxic Shock syndrome (1979) Mary Benton
Multi-organ failure, circulatory collapse: shock
Bacterium Staphyloccus aureus in warm vagina
SAARS(Feb 2003)
Respiratory failure: CO2/O2 cant be maintained
About 8000 cases in 2003. It is now containted
R
Number of individuals an infected person infects
Increases as the population size increases
Decreases as: parasite mortality increases OR
trans. dec.
Population needed to maintain an infection varies inversely
with transmission efficiency and directly with death rate
and virulence
A. anamensis A. Afarensis (came to ground ) H. habilis
(meat eater, malaria, leprosy, blood flukes) H. erectus
(stone tools) H. sapiens (more graceful, more tools,
hunters) Us H. sapien sapien
Chapter 3: Diseases of Antiquity
Hematuria/Snail fever/Schistosoma/bilharzia: 5000 BC
The pharaohs plague (Nile valley: irrigation)
Eggs reach fresh water and release larva:
miracidium
Mircidia penetrate snails and form sporocysts in
liver
Sporocysts turn into cercariae asexually and enter
H2O
Cercariae penetrate mice/humans and turn into
adults
Adults mate and females lay eggs: granuloma
tumour
Eggs pass through bladder and result in bleeding
Eggs store up in liver and spleen
Still present with 1M deaths annually
The plague of Athens: 430 BC (UNKNOWN)
From Ethopia Egypt Athens
Identity of plague is still unknown
The Roman Fever 27 BC (MALARIA)
Hippocrates described the first 2 kinds present:
Benign tertian (plasmodium vivax)
Quartan (plasmodium malariae)
Malignant tertian (plasmodium falciparum) this
may be the one present since the 2nd century
The Antonine Plague AD 166 (UNKNOWN?
SMALLPOX?)
From Mesopotamia to Roman Empire to Europe
Symptoms: high fever, mouth inflammation,
diherrea, postules after 9 days (Unknown identity:
small pox?)
2000 deaths in Rome including Arelius Antonius
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Description
Chapter 1 & 2: Disease ecology R Definitions: Number of individuals an infected person infects Increases as the population size increases Parasites org. That growsfeedsshelters onin another Virus ultimate micro-parasite... Decreases as: parasite mortality increases OR trans. dec. Macro-parasites many celled, cycles through transmission stages, it passes through the external Population needed to maintain an infection varies inversely environment, dont multiply in host with transmission efficiency and directly with death rate Transmission movement from host to host and virulence Incubation period time interval where the disease A. anamensis A. Afarensis (came to ground ) H. habilis develops visible multiplication, replication... (Infection to (meat eater, malaria, leprosy, blood flukes) H. erectus symptoms) (stone tools) H. sapiens (more graceful, more tools, Latent period inactive period bw infection and onset of hunters) Us H. sapien sapien disease (infection to contagiousness) Chapter 3: Diseases of Antiquity Parasite virulence capacity of a parasite to cause disease Zoonotic infections animal infections to humans HematuriaSnail feverSchistosomabilharzia: 5000 BC Mature epidemics: non-infected ppl born after the epidemic get a massive attack later on as another wave hits The pharaohs plague (Nile valley: irrigation) Eggs reach fresh water and release larva: What are the main factors that influence the miracidium occurrence of a disease? Mircidia penetrate snails and form sporocysts in The epidemiological triad: Host, Environment and Agent liver Sporocysts turn intocercariaeasexually and enter There are 3 classes of diseases: H2O (Type III epidemic) Class A: most infections are inapparent Cercariae penetrate micehumans and tu
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