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Final

Exam review notes part 3

3 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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DiseaseCholera(America’s greatest scourge)Syphilis(great imitator, morbus gallicus, great
px)Tuberculosis
Historical
context
Miasmatist: Pattenkofer (1818-1901)
Contagionist: Pasteur, Kosh, Hansen
7 pandemics:
1.(1816-1821) Indian River British
troops in Bengal
2.(1829-1815) Wide spread: Europe,
CNDA, US
1832: cholera riots at physicians,
victims went into hiding, fears of
bodies being sold
3.(1852-1859) Scientific advances, John
Snow experiments: epidemiological study
4.(1863-1873)
5. (1881-1896) Hygiene measure in N
America, . Kosh isolated microbe
vibrio cholera
6.(1899-1923) Missed Western
Hemisphere
7.(1961-Ongoing)
Urbanization, Industrialization,
Population growth, Wastewater effluents,
Residential crowding, Privies, Closed
working environments, Lack of hygiene
1494: Napoleon women in Italy spread it to
Spanish troops... carried it to the world
1530: Girolamo Fracastoro: word Syphilis:
story of a little boy being punished by god
1728-1793: John Hunter: self experiment
1799-1889: Philippe Ricord: Gonorrhoea
not the same as Syphilis, Determined 3
stages
1943: Spread to Europe and rest of world
1947: Tuskegee Syphilis Study
399 poor blacks in Macon County,
Alaska. Signifies RACISM in science
Columbian Theory: Syphilis introduced to
Europe from the new world. (Proof: Skeletal
remains in America, written record)
Pre-Columbian Theory: The Treponema
family of spirochetes, with varying clinical
manifestations evolved due to changes in the
climate
2400 BC: Egyptian mummies
800 BC: ‘Phthisis’ or consumption
460 BC: Hippocrates: evil air:
pulmonary TB
500 AD: Kings Evil Royal Touching:
ENGLAND
1629: TB LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH
1679: Franciscus D Sylvius: tubercules
Aristotle: bad heavy breath
1800s: it was romanticized
Due to Shift from rural urban (a
change in the host population)
Town dairies: zoonotic transmission
from soil bacteria cattle (M.bovis)
Us (M. tuberculi) (TB DID NOT
EVOLVE, ENVIRONMENT AND
HOST POPULATION CHANGED)
Epidemiology> world wide there are 12 million cases/ year
> in USA, 32000 cases per year (2002)
> after HIV, people started using condoms,
STI's decreased
> cases of syphilis became rare in Canada
(2002 it increased x4 in Canada)
>60 million affected today
1/3 of the worlds population is
infected with the TB bacillus
Each year 30M are infected; 10M
develop active disease
2 million TB related death/ year
worldwide
Etiology1883- Kosh dispatched to Egypt and
discovered bacteria: Vibreo Cholera:
infected with 2 viruses:
1.Codes for cholera toxin
2.Codes for receptor that allows the
toxin coding virus to enter the
1905: Fritz Schaudinn and Eric
Hoffmann identified spiral shaped
bacterium: Treponema pallidum
(T.pallidum)
an extremely fragile spirochete
surviving only briefly outside the host
Mycobacterium tuberculosis acid
fast bacilli
3 types of human bacillus:
Type I found in India; least virulent
Type A African, China, Japan...
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Description
Disease Cholera (Americas greatest scourge) Syphilis (great imitator, morbus gallicus, great Tuberculosis px) Historical Miasmatist: Pattenkofer (1818-1901) 1494: Napoleon women in Italy spread it to 2400 BC: Egyptian mummies context Contagionist: Pasteur, Kosh, Hansen Spanish troops... carried it to the world 800 BC: Phthisis or consumption 7 pandemics: 1530: Girolamo Fracastoro: word Syphilis: 460 BC: Hippocrates: evil air: 1.(1816-1821) Indian River British story of a little boy being punished by god pulmonary TB 1728-1793: John Hunter: self experiment troops in Bengal 500 AD: Kings Evil Royal Touching: 2.(1829-1815) Wide spread: Europe, 1799-1889: Philippe Ricord: Gonorrhoea ENGLAND CNDA, US not the same as Syphilis, Determined 3 1629: TB LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH stages 1832: cholera riots at physicians, 1679: Franciscus D Sylvius: tubercules victims went into hiding, fears of 1943: Spread to Europe and rest of world Aristotle: bad heavy breath bodies being sold 1947: Tuskegee Syphilis Study 1800s: it was romanticized 3.(1852-1859) Scientific advances, John 399 poor blacks in Macon County, Snow experiments: epidemiological study Alaska. Signifies RACISM in science 4.(1863-1873) 5. (1881-1896) Hygiene measure in N Columbian Theory: Syphilis introduced to America, . Kosh isolated microbe Europe from the new world. (Proof: Skeletal vibrio cholera remains in America, written record) Due to Shift from rural urban (a 6.(1899-1923) Missed Western change in the host population) Pre-Columbian Theory: The Treponema Town dairies: zoonotic transmission Hemisphere 7.(1961-Ongoin
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