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Full year study guide (including AIDS and w/o germs)

72 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Chapter 1: DISEASE ECOLOGY
Parasites: organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism and that
does not contribute to the survival of its host
Virus: ultimate micro-parasite, smaller than bacteria; neither cells not organisms; can only
reproduce within their host
Macroparasites: composed of many cells; does not multiply in host, instead cycles through
transmission stageseggs and larvae–which pass into the external environment
Transmission: the sending or passing of something, such as a message or disease from one
place or person to another
Incubation period: the interval of time required for development of a disease
Latent period: seemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent
illness
Parasite virulence: capacity of a parasite to cause disease
Zoonotic infections: animal infections that can be transmitted to humans
What are the main factors that influence the occurrence of a disease?
Host: (usually a person) immunity, genetics, nutrition
Environment: some where the conditions dont allow for diseases to take place
Agent: biological, physical, chemical (type of bacteria)
Modes of Disease Transmission
Direct occurs through direct contact, e.g. from person to person
Indirect through a common route / vector, e.g. contaminated air / water, mosquito
Portal of entry: Dermal through the skin, e.g. fungi
Ingestion through the mouth, e.g. E.coli in water
Inhalation during respiration, e.g. particulate matter
www.notesolution.com
Types of disease outbreaks
Three main types:
1) Endemic usual occurrence of a given disease within a given geographical
area 2) Epidemic occurrence of a disease in excess of normal
expectancy in a defined region
3) Pandemic worldwide epidemic
Definition of Plagues
In the past, all disease outbreaks were referred to as plagues
Derived from Latin word plaga which means to strike a blow that wounds
Today, we refer to such a disease outbreak as an epidemic, comes from Greek
word epi (among”) and demos (“the people”)
Acceptable definition of plague: highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease.
Plague is a serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually
transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas
Historical Perspective
Hunter & Gather society:
- Society was a lot healthier because there was less contact with people
- Scarce population
- Hunters never stayed in the same place, they were constantly moving around
- Barely no diseases
Agriculture Revolution:
www.notesolution.com
- People started settling down
- Had bigger families (more children= free labour)
- People began being more connected
- no bathrooms or hygiene resolutions
- Diseases started to increase e.g. Black Plaque
Globalized Societies:
- Better transportation such as airplanes, trains, cars helped increase diseases to
travel
- Also helped increase transmission e.g. Sars
Technological Advancements:
Certain present day new products that are created may result in creating diseases.
e.g. Toxic Shock Syndrome
CHPATER 3: Plaques of Antiquity
o Dates back from 5000 BC to 700 AD
o Characterized by parasites with long lived transmission stages (e.g. eggs,
larva, ...)
o Transmitted from person to person contact.
The Pharaohs Plaque
Evidence that it dates back to 1900 BC
Thought to first have appeared in the Nile Valley of Egypt
Agriculture, the inundation of the Nile, eventually irrigation created favorable
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 1: DISEASE ECOLOGY Parasites: organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism and that does not contribute to the survival of its host Virus: ultimate micro-parasite, smaller than bacteria; neither cells not organisms; can only reproduce within their host Macroparasites: composed of many cells; does not multiply in host, instead cycles through transmission stageseggs and larvaewhich pass into the external environment Transmission: the sending or passing of something, such as a message or disease from one place or person to another Incubation period: the interval of time required for development of a disease Latent period: seemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness Parasite virulence: capacity of a parasite to cause disease Zoonotic infections: animal infections that can be transmitted to humans What are the main factors that influence the occurrence of a disease? Host: (usually a person) immunity, genetics, nutrition Environment: some where the conditions dont allow for diseases to take place Agent: biological, physical, chemical (type of bacteria) Modes of Disease Transmission Direct occurs through direct contact, e.g. from person to person Indirect through a common route / vector, e.g. contaminated air / water, mosquito Portal of entry: Dermal through the skin, e.g. fungi Ingestion through the mouth, e.g. E.coli in water Inhalation during respiration, e.g. particulate matter www.notesolution.com Types of disease outbreaks Three main types: 1) Endemic usual occurrence of a given disease within a given geographical area 2) Epidemic occurrence of a disease in excess of normal expectancy in a defined region 3) Pandemic worldwide epidemic Definition of Plagues In the past, all disease outbreaks were referred to as plagues Derived from Latin word plaga which means to strike a blow that wounds Today, we refer to such a disease outbreak as an epidemic, comes from Greek word epi (among) and demos (the people) Acceptable definition of plague: highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease. Plague is a serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas Historical Perspective Hunter & Gather society: - Society was a lot healthier because there was less contact with people - Scarce population - Hunters never stayed in the same place, they were constantly moving around - Barely no diseases Agriculture Revolution: www.notesolution.com - People started settling down - Had bigger families (more children= free labour) - People began being more connected - no bathrooms or hygiene resolutions - Diseases started to increase e.g. Black Plaque Globalized Societies: - Better transportation such as airplanes, trains, cars helped increase diseases to travel - Also helped increase transmission e.g. Sars Technological Advancements: Certain present day new products that are created may result in creating diseases. e.g. Toxic Shock Syndrome CHPATER 3: Plaques of Antiquity o Dates back from 5000 BC to 700 AD o Characterized by parasites with long lived transmission stages (e.g. eggs, larva, ...) o Transmitted from person to person contact. The Pharaohs Plaque Evidence that it dates back to 1900 BC Thought to first have appeared in the Nile Valley of Egypt Agriculture, the inundation of the Nile, eventually irrigation created favorable www.notesolution.com conditions that promoted the spread of the disease Disease now known as snail fever or blood fluke disease / endemic hematuria / schistosomiasis European invasion of Egypt (1799 1801) resulted in the first European experience with plaques The Plaque of Athens Occurred in 430BC an epidemic that started in Ethiopia and gradually moved into Egypt raged for about two years identity of the disease is not known characterized by fever, pustules and a rash of extremities destroyed fighting power of the Athenian navy The Roman Fever Roman Empire was established 27 BC - it had a series of colonies Vast trade network emerged Malaria became prevalent Thought to result from the bad air due to vapors released from marshes in the summer Epidemics occurred every 5 to 8 years Plague had an effect on the early Christian Church The Antonine Plaque AD 166 - brought to the Roman Empire by Roman troops from Mesopotamia www.notesolution.com
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