Lecture notes & text book incorporated study guide

50 views8 pages
1 Dec 2010
HLTB01H3Y: Health, Aging and the Life Cycle
Department of Health Studies
University of Toronto at Scarborough
Summer 2010
Instructor: Anna Walsh.
Term: Summer 2010 Mondays 10 a.m.-12 p.m.
Lecture Room: SW 319.
A&G: Chapter 5 - Aging of the Skin and Musculoskeletal System
Midterm exam questions
- All m/c questions
- Uses case studies in exam > gives you a story, and figure out the answer based on the
- Has true and false questions
- May be statements and have to pick out the false one and indicate why it is false
- Includes: lectures, videos, current events, tutorials, not be tested on the joke of the week
- 50 questions, 2 points per questions, 2 hrs to complete the exam
x The purpose of this chapter is to provide an anatomical overview of these
systems, present normal age changes, and describe disease processes.
- We look at peoples outwards appearance, and have a general impression of
someones age just by looking at them
- Facial appearance gives us an idea of how old someone is
- We age internally and externally
Basic Anatomy and Physiology
x The skin, or integumentary system, has several major functions. It is the front
line of defence against harmful environmental influences and is an important part
of our immunological and endocrine systems.
o Largest organ of the body
o Critical in temperature control, helps in homeostasis (keeping your body
in balance)
o There are sensory nerves in the skin, and it allows us to monitor our
environment (ex. reason we know stove is hot is because we can feel/sense
if its on or not)
o For people suffering from neurological (brain/nerve) conditions, they can
have a dangerous accident because hey dont have the feedback that we
take for granted
x Epidermis: outermost layer
o Kerotonocytes: serving the purpose of protecting the skin from outside
harm and help it heal
o Melanocytes: make up 2% of cells in epidermis, produce melanin that give
colour to the skin
o When exposed to the sun, results in increase in melanin production
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Langerhang? Cells: make up 1% of cells here but they play an important
role in our immune function along with mass cells found in the dermal
layer, they respond to toxic allergic stimuli
x Dermis: middle
o Collagen and elastic tissue: strength and elasticity to the skin
x Subcutaneous fat:
o Beneath dermis
o Gives shape, and form to the body and provides protection and insulation
o Changes in skin are universal
o Changes in hair follicles will affect you causing graying and loss of hair
o We will all get wrinkles eventually, and they are partially due to a
decrease in this layer and in the collagen and elastin found in the dermal
o The skin over our nose remains smooth
o Smoking, caffeine, sun exposure, stress, nutrition (foods with antioxidants,
anti-inflammatory properties) will speed up process of wrinkles
Age Related Changes
- Aging of the skin is the most visible area and we make these kind of
judgements when looking at someone
Disease-Related Processes
x Xerosis
- Common dermatological problem
- Red scaly, itchy skin on legs, back and arms
- Very dry condition of the skin, causing a lot of itchiness
- Problem: scratch > cut > infection
- Can also cause a sleep problem
- Vitamin A can cause this
x Seborrheic Keratoses
- Older age spots
- Benign, non malignant
- Commonly found in older people
x Skin Cancer
- Affects all of us
- 2 most common forms: basal cell, scloma cell carcinomas
- Men are more likely to have malignant melanomas on their trunk and women
will present with it on their lower legs and on the sole of their feet
- If you see a spot on your skin, don’t think that it’s nothing > get it checked!
x Pressure Ulcers
- Problem for nursing staff and people treating these people
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
- If you lose the ability to shift, you would have to get people to shift you so
that you dont get pressure ulcers
- It can be prevented!! > need nursing staff to move them often
- Risk factors for these ulcers
o aging skin (fewer blood vessels, nerves, loses elasticity, subcutaneous
fat layer becomes thinner)
o more likely to happen to people who cant move around. those with
disabling illness: ex. Parkinson’s, dementia
o begins in one area of the skin because they are immobile in a
wheelchair or bed
- also called bedsores
- breakdown of tissue in a bony prominence
Promoting Optimal Aging
- Depends on SES, nutrition, exercise, environmental conditions
- Skin is the first organ to be affected by inadequate nutrition
- Need an adequate amount of food and intake all the time, proteins, vitamin C
in order to heal
- Healthy skin is what we can’t b/c it will protect your body from the outside
elements and maintain integrity of body systems
- Cultures that eat tofu and yams will have no idea what a hot flash is
- Women growing up and eating this kind of food will know what menopause is
and won’t be able to take the heat
Musculoskeletal System
Basic Anatomy and Physiology
- Talking about the bones, skeleton and it is affected by the aging process
x Bones
- Structure, strength
- Size and shape vary
- Regardless of the size, they are made up of cortical tissue (compact: outer
- Contain blood vessels, nerves and bone marrow
- Stores blood vessels, immature red and white blood cells
- Store mineral salts: calcium (more is needed during certain times of our lives,
pregnant = more), phosphorus, magnesium
- Responding everyday to environmental effects
- Bone tissue is constantly turning over
x Soft Tissue
x Ligaments and tendons
- strong fibre connective tissue
- Cartiledge: specialized type of connective tissue found at the end of the bones
and protects the joint. Has no nerve or blood supply of its own > affects
ability to heal and renew itself (ex. found at end of the nose)
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers