Final Exam Study Guide - All Diseases

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5 Dec 2010

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Cause/Risk Factor
Xerosis=dry skin
-red, scaly & itchy skin on
legs, back & arms
-unknown but may be
associated with
slowing of the
keratinocyte turnover
-application of creams
(topical emollients)
after bathing to slow the
loss of water from the
-helpful emollients
which contain lanolin,
glycerin, lactic acid &
-mild corticosteroid
ointments help heal
severely affected areas
-troublesome in the
winter b/c ppl stay
indoors in a warm &
dry envir
Seborrheic keratoses (old age
spots)=benign lesions
commonly found in older ppl
-brown to black in colour
& have irregular edges
-slightly raised
-RF: sun exposure
-get them evaluated &
possibly removed to
differentiate from
malignant growth
-can occur in young
adulthood too
Skin Cancer
-2 common forms:
1)basal cell carcinoma
2)squamous cell carcinoma
1)-small, fleshy bump or
nodule (pearly looking) on
the head or neck
2)-red, scaly, & hard patch
found face or back of h&
-may become ulcerated &
crusty with time
-RF: sun exposure
(for both)
2)-RF: chronic
irritations (e.g.:
chronic dermatitis
due to exposure to
allergens or scarring
form radiation or
-nutritional status of
the body
1)-remove lesions in the
early stage of growth to
minimize further
damage to skin
2)-general illness-
preventing strategies
1)-very slow growing
& metastases are rare
-common to have a
lesion having second
primary growth
Osteoporosis (porous
bone)=bone loss &
deterioration so severe that
the bone can fracture
=9d porosity of the
-fractures can occur in any
part of the body but esp.
vertebrae, wrist & upper
part of the femur (hip)
-RF for women: those
with low body weight
&/or family history
-diet low in calcium
(esp. in teen & young
-social support
-calcitonin: naturally
occurring hormone that
works on osteoclasts to
b/c bone loss occurs
without any obvious
-pain of the fracture
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trabecular bone & thinning of
the cortical bone
adult yrs), early
menopause, anorexia
nervosa or bulimia,
inactive lifestyle,
excessive use of
-prescription drugs:
-RF for men: calcium
intake, genetics,
&lifestyle options
prevent trabecular bone
-bisphosphonates (e.g.:
fosamax): synthesized
which 9V bone
-estrogen (&
replacement therapy:
low doses but 9V risk of
heart disease & breast
may be osteoarthritis
Skeletal kyphosis GRZDJHV
hump)=multiple vertebral
-severe & painful
condition of the spine
affecting posture & height
-head & chest may be bent
over to the extent that the
lowest rib is resting on
iliac crest of the pelvis
-collapsed vertebrae will
put pressure on the rib
cage compressing the
heart & lungs therefore no
respiratory & cardiac
-walks with head
downward therefore no
visual field &
-difficult to drive &
find clothes that fit
-great fear of falling
hence limiting normal
activities of life
-9 in bone spurs &
-unclear whether
-centered around
-common form of
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cartilage thins or is damaged
hence the bones of joints rub
together resulting in injury
synovial fluid
-swelling, stiffness
&tenderness around
affected joints (hips,
knees, fingers or
intervertebral joints but
not in the elbows or
-gait &balance change
-those with severe:
depression due to pain &
starts in the cartilage
or the bone (e.g.: if
cartilage is damaged
bone but thickening
of the bone damages
the cartilage)
-normal aging
processes in the joints
-9d bone turnover
causing thickened
-genetics, obesity,
persistent wear &tear
& prior injuries
-RF: overuse of joints
maintenance of the joint
function &pain relief
-e.g.: -physical therapy
helps to maintain
muscle strength &joint
-exercises that minimize
weight bearing (protects
the joint) like swimming
& low impact aerobics
-aerobic conditioning
(walking or aquatics)
maintains strength
&mobility without
damaging joints
-NSAIDs, injections of
corticosteroids into
joints (for the severe)
Estrogen replacement
-acupuncture & yoga
-social support
-surgical replacement of
the injured joint
-seldom affects the
young but starts at an
earlier aged than
symptoms indicate
-not linked to death
instead disability
Bursitis=inflammation of the
fluid-filled sacs (bursas) that
are found where muscles or
tendons cross over bony
prominences like the knee or
-injury or yrs of
overuse of the joint
-age-related changes
in the structure
old habits & practices
must be relearned like
brushing hair (shoulder
-if in the shoulder
limits ability to reach
over head
-impacts ADLs
-found in younger ppl
too but freq in later yrs
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