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Lecture 5 Study Notes

9 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
Jason Ramsay

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Lecture #5: Socio-Emotional Development: Self Regulation
Monday, February 7th/2011
Self Regulation within Socioeconomic Contexts
Paper by Cybele Rever asks 3 crucial questions:
1. Can we use the same measures that we used with average kids on groups of kids with
different SES and demographic characteristics?
2.What evidence is there that early environments may support or compromise childrens
development of self regulation?
3.Can studying underprivileged kids tell us something new about development in normal
Understanding the Roles of Income, Risk, and Culture
Infants and young children in poverty are exposed to multiple ecological stressors:
oResidential instability
oHigher levels of neighbourhood and family violence
oGreater psychological distress among adult caregivers
The Importance of Measurement
Raver argues that the literature on the normative development on self regulation can be viewed
from the perspective of:
1.Measurement of equivalence
Establishes whether a given set of assessments tap a latent construct such
as emotion self-regulation similarly across racially, ethnically, or
socioeconomically diverse groups so that meaningful inferences can be
drawn from the data
A good example of a controversy in measurement equivalence is the
measurement of IQ
In the 70s and to this day, many researchers suggest that traditional IQ
measures are biased against anyone who is not:
oMiddle class
oUsed to taking tests
One author went so far as to suggest that because African children did
poorly on Western IQ tests, scoring in the mid-70s on average, they were
genetically inferior to middle class Anglo kids
I would suggest that we allow the African children to devise their own
Afro-centric IQ test to see how this Western author would fare
IF he did poorly on the Afro-centric IQ tests, would that mean he was
genetically inferior to Africans?
The Africa-Centric IQ test:
oBe able to work for a living at age 7
oFeed your family on a salary of $5 a month
oFend for yourself in the wilderness
oAvoid being sold to slavery or sex trade
oKnow how to get water from a dry well
oProtect your younger siblings from predation
oGo to school when you can or it is available
oTry not to let the early death of your parents form HIV get in the
way of getting an education
2.Model equivalence
Refers to whether observed outcomes are similar or different across a set
of predictors and outcomes are similar or different across two or more
In the good old days, models of cognitive development, for example,
were assumed to be invariant across groups there was only one model
for all groups
Recently, this has been changed through the explicit testing for model
equivalence across groups
It is more likely, for example, that studies today will include contextual
variable (SES, demographic variables, ethnicity) as important mediating
This means that context is not controlled for in the same way that it
once was
Deprivation and Child behaviour Problems
It has been suspected that children who grow up poor were at greater risk for psychological
Adults who are low SES:
oGreater proportion report suffering from depression and anxiety disorders
oCompared to wealthier people, low SES people have a greater BURDEN of disease
oThis means that depression hits them much harder and is more incapacitating than in
people who have a higher SES
What about the kdis?
oChidlren and poverty is a hige issue world wide
oIne can find accurate depictions of child poverty in the work of Charles Dickens, such as
Oliver Twist
oChild poverty is really adult poverty
oResearch is now looking at how poverty can affect the mental hgealth of children
The Dutch Child Study
oThe researcher s wanted to find out what the rate of psychological problems was for
impoverished children
oOver 4000 children participated in the study
oThey used general comprehensive screening tool called the Child Behaviour Checklist or
oThe CBCL looks at two kinds of problems:
Internalizing Problems
Externalizing Problems

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Lecture #5: Socio-Emotional Development: Self Regulation Monday, February 7 2011 Self Regulation within Socioeconomic Contexts Paper by CybeleRever asks3crucial questions: 1. Canweusethesamemeasuresthat weusedwith averagekidsongroupsof kidswith different SESanddemographic characteristics? 2. What evidenceis therethat early environmentsmay support or compromisechildrens development of self regulation? 3. Canstudying underprivilegedkidstell ussomething new about development in normal contexts? Understanding the Rolesof Income, Risk, and Culture Infantsandyoungchildrenin poverty areexposedto multiple ecological stressors: o Residential instability o Higher levelsof neighbourhoodandfamily violence o Greater psychological distressamongadult caregivers The Importance of Measurement Raver arguesthat theliteratureonthenormativedevelopment onself regulation canbeviewed from theperspectiveof: 1. Measurement of equivalence Establisheswhether agivensetof assessmentstapalatent construct such asemotion self-regulation similarly acrossracially, ethnically, or socioeconomically diversegroupssothat meaningful inferencescanbe drawnfrom thedata A goodexampleof acontroversy in measurement equivalenceis the measurement of IQ In the70sandto this day,many researcherssuggestthat traditional IQ measuresarebiasedagainst anyonewho is not: o Western o White
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