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The Biological Embedding on Earth Experience- Notes for cumulative final

6 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTC23H3
Professor
Jason Ramsay

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HLTB02 - THE BIOLOGICAL EMBEDDING ON EARTH EXPERIENCE AND ITS
EFFECTS N HEALTH IN ADULTHOOD
- The diseases that contribute to socioeconomic differentials in morbidity and mortality
have their onset in adulthood. e.g, dramatic declines in adult health status in the short
term were shown to occur in central and eastern europe in response to disruptions in the
socioeconomic environment.
- if what is true for plants and animals in the wild is also true for humans in society, a
socioeconomic gradient in health status would be a natural consequence. those whose
circumstances most closely approximate the hospitable niche would enjoy the longest,
healthiest lives and those whose lives diverge the most from it would live lives that were
increasingly unheatlhy and short.
- evidence from longitudinal studies shows that early child development and the
socioeconomic and psychosocial environment of childhood are empirically linked to adult
health status.
- attention has been paid to the ways in which this last link occurs. Investigators
have postulated three different processes: first, latent effects by which the
early life environment affects adult health independent of intervening experience;
second, pathway effects, through which the early life environment sets individuals
onto life trajectories that in turn affect health status over time; and, third, cumulative
effects whereby the intensity and duration of exposure to unfavorable environments
adversely affects health status, according to a dose–response relationship.
www.notesolution.com
- The essence of the latency model is that specific biological factors (e.g., low birth
weight) or developmental opportunities (e.g., adequate exposure to spoken language)
at critical/sensitive periods in (early) life have a lifelong impact on health and
well-being, regardless of subsequent life circumstances.
- latent effects can be difficult to disentangle from pathway effects.
This is because the pathways model acknowledges that differences in early life environment
may direct children onto different life courses.
- the prevalence of aggressive behavior in childhood does not peak in the teenage years as is
commonly thought, but rather by 24 months of age.The principal opportunity for socializing
nonaggressive behavior falls between age two and five. In turn, lack of school readiness
leads to an increased risk of failure to adjust to school as well as academic failure.
Behavioral problems and failure in school lead to low levels of mental well-being in early
adulthood
- Life course influences on health status have been established, in the greatest detail,in the
1958 British Birth Cohort.Cumulative and pathway effects were confirmed:socioeconomic
conditions from birth to age 33 were shown to have a cumulative effect on self-rated health,
over and above the independent effect of level of education achieved (a pathway effect).
Latent effects were also confirmed.The
variable parents read to child at age 7 predicted self-rated health at age 33 even after
subsequent educational attainment had been considered. The rate of growth in early
childhood, as indexed by the percent of adult height at age 7 is also a predictorof adult
self-rated health. Finally, early behavioral adjustment is an important predictor of adult
self-rated health, even when subsequent behavioral state is taken into account.
- When this perspective is considered, then the most valid explanatory model for
the socioeconomic gradient would appear to be one that simultaneously considers
life course factors, contemporary circumstances, and the interactions between them
www.notesolution.com

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Description
HLTB02 - THE BIOLOGICAL EMBEDDING ON EARTH EXPERIENCE AND ITS EFFECTS N HEALTH IN ADULTHOOD - The diseases that contribute to socioeconomic differentials in morbidity and mortality have their onset in adulthood. e.g, dramatic declines in adult health status in the short term were shown to occur in central and eastern europe in response to disruptions in the socioeconomic environment. - if what is true for plants and animals in the wild is also true for humans in society, a socioeconomic gradient in health status would be a natural consequence. those whose circumstances most closely approximate the hospitable niche would enjoy the longest, healthiest lives and those whose lives diverge the most from it would live lives that were increasingly unheatlhy and short. - evidence from longitudinal studies shows that early child development and the socioeconomic and psychosocial environment of childhood are empirically linked to adult health status. - attention has been paid to the ways in which this last link occurs. Investigators have postulated three different processes: first, latent effects by which the early life environment affects adult health independent of intervening experience; second, pathway effects, through which the early life environment sets individuals onto life trajectories that in turn affect health status over time; and, third, cumulative effects whereby the intensity and duration of exposure to unfavorable environments adversely affects health status, according to a doseresponse relationship. www.notesolution.com
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