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HLTC23H3 Study Guide - Nutrition And Pregnancy, Fibrinogen, Social Capital

Health Studies
Course Code
Jason Ramsay

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*Jackson & Luke*
Postman: Disappearance of Childhood
-Concept of Child (Middle Ages): Fall of the Roman Empire (protection) to Barbarians
Literacy Disappears (social literacy disappeared/craft literacy remained)
Pedagogy Declines
Shame Disappears
Childhood Disappears ( Oral spreads faster so children could learn to talk faster)
The Renaissance
-Printing Press invented (14- 16th century) : Literature Revolution – Have to take time to
-However children still mini adults
-Innis: Time binding- written/last Space binding: oral, now
Effect of media/technology
-Alters interests, symbols, nature of community
What developed to give rise to “childhood?
-Private life + entertainment, keeping a diary, a sense that the individual transcended the
group, a division btw those who cud read and those who cudnt, knowledge became
organized, skooling was a necessity and therefore childhood a necessity
A new science of childhood
-Rousseau: Children have innate pure characteristics that need to be preserved
-Locke: Children = Tabula Rasa: Blank states that must be educated to be civilized/survive
-Freud: Little devils that must balance innate purity with societys demands
-Piaget: Little Scientists that must develop mental structures to cognize about the world –
Stages of Cognitive development
-Modern concept of childhood only 150 years
-Industrial society information based society
-Internet revolution like literacy revolution: again have access to same things as adults
because of the democratization of information
-The lower end of the info revolution – child labour widespread. In countries with
decreased globalization like living in middle ages. India doing better because of eduation
= cognitive capacity
-Barriers that are responsible for establishing childhood breaking down because of entire
markets being target at young people ($). Kids grow up faster but mature slower
-Concept of childhood varies by culture
PiagetConstructivist/Little though-sacks/Scientist in the crib/Hypothesis Testing
-Basic Process of development: Organization and Adaptation

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-Assimilation (fits with existing thinking) and Accommodation are basis of how we
organize the world. Increases in complexity with each stage.
-Schemas: scripts, plans, goals, dynamic (updated through acc/ass), visual & verbal, the
higher the stage the greater the schema./ Beck –Cognitive Therapy
Sensorimotor Stage- intuitive thinking coordinates body and senses, development of
primitive symbols and basic words and very basic social skills (facial emotions/social
Pre-Operational Stage: Language skills, represent the world through symbols (beyond
psychical activity and action), words, images, drawings, social world (perspective
thinking), pretense and imagination.
Concrete Operations: reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into
different sets, symbol use complex and rich (not algebra)
Formal Operations: Abstract, explicit, logical, reasoning , executive and decision
making abilities, frontal lobes dont stop developing until 25. Not all of us reach this.
Vygotsky – Education (computers/internet) + Social Approach
-Cognition = Learn through social world. Children are apprentices to adults/Scaffolding.
-All learning starts as a social interaction and only late become internalized in our heads
-Performing a task always within the zone of proximal development- how far the child
can go without/with adult help.
Attachment- Bowlby
-Based on responsiveness of parents to babys emotional displays
-Complex emotions
4-6 Weeks: Social Smile, 3-4 Months: anger, surprise, sadness, 5-7 months: fear,
6-8: shame-shyness, 2 years: contempt/guilt.
Stranger Anxiety 11/2 years: Erik Erikson: First stage of life – Trust vs Mistrust
Strange Situation Task: Secure vs Insecure Attachment: base for exploration vs
insecure babies: avoidant (ignores mom on return) /resistant (clings to mom then
resists by pushing her away) /disorganized (disoriented)
Bronfenbrenner: Bio -ecological Model
-Nature + Nurture+ Environment = Bi-directional influences
-Humans create the environments that they live in, dynamic interplay btw person and
-Wholistic view of child development: framework for Social Determinants of Health
Microsystem ( home, church, school, hospital, day care, background noise, crowding, types of
toys available) social roles, face to face relations with many things/people) Mesosystem
(home & daycare, family & neighborhood, family & peer group- 2 or more settings containing
the dvlping person/ different microsystems interact)
Exosystem (Parents workplace, community, health centers, extended families: 2 or more setting
where one does not contain the developing person but it indirectly influences them)

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Three Big Facts
Differences in income distribution deeply affects health status of a country’s citizens
The steeper the SES or income gradient, the steeper the differences in health status
between rich and poor.
Gradient effects are found throughout history, across the globe and are persistently
correlated with developmental health status and outcome, when controlling for individual
-SES vs any major disease globally reveals SES as main factor
-Flatter gradient better for ALL
How does SES gradient determine health outcome?
-Latent Effects:dye is cast”: factors at critical periods have lifelong impact on health
regardless of how life turns out. Ex: SES at early age regardless of education
Feral Children + Romanian Orphans ( caught up in cognitive development but not
in social emotional- put them at risk for poor outcomes, death)+ Moon-Shot
Model (missed target)
Critical Period: where the brain is maximally receptive to environmental input
Biological Embedding: critical periods of development interact with
environmental influences to causally influence development. At the neuronal &
hormonal level. Once it takes place its difficult to change through experience.
-Pathway Effects: fork in the road” - early life event causes positive or negative
deviation in the trajectory of development.
-Cumulative Effects: Multiple jeopardy” – effect of early development accumulate
across time. Duration or intensity of exposure. Ex: social class
Latency Effects
-Dutch Famine: 1000 to 400-800 calories/ critical periods
Pregnant women still had babies
Babies exposed to famine in late or mid gestation were lighter, shorter, thinner
and had a smaller head circumference.
Exposure meant a smaller placenta.
Babies exposed to famine in early gestation were slightly heavier and larger on
-Later Effects:
People exposed to famine had impaired glucose tolerance, meaning that they had a
much higher risk for diabetes.
Exposure in mid-gestation was linked to an increase in obstructive airway disease.
Babies exposed to famine in first trimester showed the most striking effects.
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