-Assimilation (fits with existing thinking) and Accommodation are basis of how we
organize the world. Increases in complexity with each stage.
-Schemas: scripts, plans, goals, dynamic (updated through acc/ass), visual & verbal, the
higher the stage the greater the schema./ Beck –Cognitive Therapy
•Sensorimotor Stage- intuitive thinking coordinates body and senses, development of
primitive symbols and basic words and very basic social skills (facial emotions/social
•Pre-Operational Stage: Language skills, represent the world through symbols (beyond
psychical activity and action), words, images, drawings, social world (perspective
thinking), pretense and imagination.
•Concrete Operations: reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into
different sets, symbol use complex and rich (not algebra)
•Formal Operations: Abstract, explicit, logical, reasoning , executive and decision
making abilities, frontal lobes don’t stop developing until 25. Not all of us reach this.
Vygotsky – Education (computers/internet) + Social Approach
-Cognition = Learn through social world. Children are apprentices to adults/Scaffolding.
-All learning starts as a social interaction and only late become internalized in our heads
-Performing a task always within the zone of proximal development- how far the child
can go without/with adult help.
-Based on responsiveness of parents to baby’s emotional displays
•4-6 Weeks: Social Smile, 3-4 Months: anger, surprise, sadness, 5-7 months: fear,
6-8: shame-shyness, 2 years: contempt/guilt.
•Stranger Anxiety 11/2 years: Erik Erikson: First stage of life – Trust vs Mistrust
•Strange Situation Task: Secure vs Insecure Attachment: base for exploration vs
insecure babies: avoidant (ignores mom on return) /resistant (clings to mom then
resists by pushing her away) /disorganized (disoriented)
Bronfenbrenner: Bio -ecological Model
-Nature + Nurture+ Environment = Bi-directional influences
-Humans create the environments that they live in, dynamic interplay btw person and
-Wholistic view of child development: framework for Social Determinants of Health
Microsystem ( home, church, school, hospital, day care, background noise, crowding, types of
toys available) social roles, face to face relations with many things/people) Mesosystem
(home & daycare, family & neighborhood, family & peer group- 2 or more settings containing
the dvlping person/ different microsystems interact)
Exosystem (Parent’s workplace, community, health centers, extended families: 2 or more setting
where one does not contain the developing person but it indirectly influences them)