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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Anna Walsh

HLTB03- Tutorials TUT01 - Mechanistic model look @ the human body as a machine n break it down - Flexner Reportaudit of medical school, as a result, a lot of medical schools were closed 1910 - Evidence-based medicine - Reductionism model cause of disease is related to individual factors - Engels proponent of environment..focused on links b/w living, poor conditions - Virchow social and economic deprivation (main focus) - Illich came up w/ antigenises, also focused on individual’s responsibility abt their health - 1945 put forward a plan for access medical care 2 every1 (started 1 in Saskatchewan) - Hospital construction grants program shared cost 4 medical institutions - 1972 all provinces have signed on 4 medicare - Romanow Commission in 2001, mission discussed 2 integrated chaouli (chapter 2) st - Saskatchewan 1 province 2 sign for a healthcare system Questions 1. Social disease- disease has a high risk among socialized group of people TUT02 Questions 1. Center For Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) annotate "health care is vital to all of us some of the time, but public health is vital to all of us all of the time" (2009). What is the new “public health”? - New public health is the concentration of social environment; those refer on public health. Public life incorporates lifestyle, the social environment. o Social factors results to social nature of disease (ex: lung cancer [smoking], TB [over-crowding conditions]) HLTB03- Tutorials List and describe the main structural dimensions of the public health system in Canada. - Health surveillance, disease and injury protection, health care protection, population health assessment, health promotion, emergency preparedness (one being debated on) o Health promotion: implements strategies that allows u to improve the system and improve control Describe the barriers to the full realization of a strengthened public health system. (What is stopping it from working) - More focus on crisis management and prevention - Funding - Problem with new public health definition: the definition duznt work fluidly (different province to province) 2. Often there is debate amongst health professionals whether to include “Emergency Preparedness” as a distinct dimension of the emerging new public health system in Canada. Clearly provide your standpoint with well-drawn out arguments. (Use this question as a class forum/debate) - Its important cuz there wud be faster preparedness (Faster reaction times) - Stock piling of emergency safety products 3. What are some indicators of health status and non-medical determinants of health? How do they help to explain health and illness in our society? - Life expectancy; Mortality rate; Causes of death 4. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the gap in health between white and black Americans has been estimated to cause 84 000 excess deaths a year in the United States. In the United States, health disparities are well documented in minority populations such as African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos. When compared to European Americans, these minority groups have higher incidence of chronic diseases, higher mortality, and poorer health outcomes. In what ways are racism and racialization associated with health and illness? What strategies could researchers employ in order to explore the role of race in research on health and illness. HLTB03- Tutorials - Racism is distinction b/w race color; Racialization is process by which u have racial categories - Engels: Environmentalist factors - Illich: Individualistic factors TUT03 1) Nurses in Canada want full-time employment, appropriate workloads, involvement in decision making and educational opportunities. During the cutbacks of the 1990s, many nurses were forced into part-time or casual jobs. By the late 1990's, 48% of nursing positions provided only part-time work. Desperate for stable employment, up to 15% of new Canadian graduates now move directly to the U.S (Sibbald, 2002, p. 535). Discuss the push and pull factors influencing the international migration of health care providers. a. Push Factors: a. Economic instability b. Limited opportunities c. Impact of HIV/AIDS d. Danger work environments e. Lack of career opportunities b. Pull Factors: a. Higher pay b. Better working conditions c. Have a lot of opportunities d. Political stability e. Aid work 2. Which factors have facilitated the emergence of nursing as a prominent health care occupation? Which factors have served to constrain the development of nursing in Canada? What implications have changes in medical technology and in the organization of health care services had for the development of nursing? HLTB03- Tutorials a. Facilitated the emergence of nursing: Environmental importations and Nurses are cheaper later b. Constrain the development of nursing: They are dispensable 3. What is the new “public health”? a. It concentrates on social and environmental needs 4. What are the relationships between the disvaluing of women and women's work in general and the disvaluing of the emotional labor of nursing? a. They are not allowed to do much which disvalues their emotional labor b. Everything is more systemic, psycho-social support is not taking place 5. Many argue that Canada's health care commitment to its patients has been replaced by corporatism. Outline and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of corporatism and health care in Canada. STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Increase in efficiency Dehumanizing treating process (looking @ them as a car) TUT04 1. Compare and contrast 'Complementary and Alternative Medicine' (CAM) and conventional medicine. o Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): combined methods n therapies focuses on cause of illnesses...takes a holistic approach (looks at the whole body); treatments (according to personal traits, genetics) are highly individualized; commonly associated with natural feeling o Conventional: focuses on symptoms (diagnosed based on symptoms)...takes a mechanistic approach; treatment are generalized 2. Discuss the evolving relationship between CAM and conventional medicine. Describe the following typologies of CAM with a clear example and discuss the principles underlying each CAM category. o Conventional looks at CAM in history as unscientific, unrealistic, unreliable and irrational o CAM saw conventional as too rigid, sumtin that duz applies to everyone (impersonal), invasive 3. Biologically-based techniques: using substances found in nature in sum sort of natural therapy HLTB03- Tutorials o Biologically-based techniques: using substances found in nature in sum sort of natural therapy (homeopathy, acufancture) o Manual therapies: chiropractor, massage, octatherapy, reflexology o Energy therapies: therapies using energy fields 4. Describe the
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