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HLTB03 Midterm Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Dan Silver

HLTB03 Midterm Study Guide Lecture 1 Communicable Disease - HIV/Aids - Influenza – Contagious respiratory illness – Avian Flu, Swine Flu, Flu Pandemics - Malaria- kills over 1 million annually, 9/10 deaths in sub-Sahara Africa..Approx 40% of world population is at risk - Polio- Virus, tends to infect children under 5. No cure - Tuberculosis- Bacteria, approx. 1/3 of the world population may be infected with TB. High rates in Africa Non- Communicable Diseases - not caused by acute infection - long term harm - can be prevented usually - #1 cause of death and disability in the world - Ex. Cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes Global Health & Nutrition - Inequalities in food distribution  global hunger - Water- 9 million worldwide have water-borne disease - Proteins- Made up of 20 amino acids - Iron- women and children most affected by deficiencies. Severe anemia - Vitamin A- over 100 million children under 5 suffer deficiencies – Night blindness - Iodine- Worlds major cause of preventable brain damage. Iodized salt Costs $0.05 per person a year - Folic Acid- deficiency causes spina-bifida Nutrition throughout life - Pregnancy- most common birth defects come from deficiency of folic acid in the prego mother. Delay clamping umbilical cord to increase iron stores - Infancy & Childhood- babies should receive vitamin E+K injections at birth. Problems can be permanent - Teens and Adults- careless about health, patterns are set - Older Age- foundation laid early determines life expectancy and disease later Over nutrition - Obesity is a growing problem worldwide Lecture 2- Health Economics  Health care is a way of modifying the incidence of poor health Economic Goods - Any good or service that individuals want or need but is scarce relative to our wants - General Economic Assumptions- 1) resources are limited and - 2) Potential uses of those resources are unbounded - Resources used to produce health care services are finite  individuals want health but the more health care we want the more something else must sacrifice Health Economics - application of economic theory, models and empirical techniques to the analysis of decision making as it relates to health and health care by individuals, health care providers and governments. Opportunity Costs  Tradeoffs Allocative Efficiency - the extent to which resources can be allocated to the group or individuals who can benefit most Lecture 3 – Health Economics & Health Care Systems Cost Minimizing- compares the costs of achieving a given outcome Cost-Benefit Analysis CBA- assign a monetary value to the benefits of a project and compare this with the monetary costs of project. Cost Effective Analysis- tries to identify where more benefit can be produced at same costs or lower cost can be achieved for the same benefit - compare different in costs between interventions that have different outcomes Cost Utility Analysis (CUA) – type of cost-effectiveness analysis that compares different procedures and outcomes relative to persons quality of life. Health Care Systems Social Medicine - concerned with conditions in society that produce illness and death - Material and social conditions that produce illness and mortality are : social class, economic cycles, socially produced str
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