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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Iva Zovkic

HLTB15 WINTER 2013 LECTURE # 10 – EPIDEMIOLOGY & STUDY DESIGNS QUESTIONS  What is the DEFINTION of EPIDEMIOLOGY? o The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states in specified populations and the application of this study to control health problems  What is the DEFINITION of DEMOGRAPHY? o The scientific study of human populations, including their size, composition, distribution, density, and growth as well as the causes and socio-economic consequences of changes in these factors.  What the different TYPES of EPIDEMIOLOGY? o CLINICAL - internally within the body o SOCIAL - behaviourally o CRITICAL – structurally, contextually o COMMUNICABLE-DISEASE o CHRONIC-DISEASE o COMMUNITY - happens in community o OCCUPATIONAL – happens in the workplace o QUANTITATIVE o POPULAR/LAY  What are the TWO classes of EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES? o EXPERIMENTAL – exposure is varied to detrmien how many get the disease, unethical o OBSERVATIONAL – occurrence of disease is observed in people who are exposed.  What are the TWO main types of STUDY DESIGNS? o DESCRIPTIVE – disease and related factors are measure, used when health problem is suspected and you want to develop hypotheses o ANALYTICAL  What are the TYPES of DESCRIPTIVE STUDY DESIGNS? Describe them! o CORRELATIONAL STUDIES: Correlational studies, data from entire population is used, cannot link exposure to diease in the same person o CASE REPORTS: profile of a single person o CASE SERIES: describes the characteristics of a number of patients o CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY – exposure and disease measured at one one point in time, survey population of interest, temporal association cannot be clearly determined  What are the TYPES of ANALYTICAL STUDY DESIGNS? o PROSPECTIVE COHORT – idnividuals are grouped based on exposure status and follow up to determine if exposure increases, decreases or has no effect on the development of disease  We do it when there is STRONG suggestion of ASSOCIATION, exposure is RARE, and there is a SHORT average time between EXPOSURE and DISEASE  Advantages: Expensive, Time Consuming, Loss to Follow Up, Limited to Rare Opportunities, Ascertainment of Disease HLTB15 WINTER 2013  Advantages: Classification before the disease develops, Calculation of incidence rates among exposed and not exposed, Calculate risk directly,
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