Required readings for final exam. best of luck and have fun!

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Chapter 14 Bowling Health Research Unit 14: Preparation of Quantitative data for coding and analysis Coding -method of conceptualizing research data and classifying them into meaningful and relevant categories for the participants in the study -a number is assigned to the category which is called the code -coding of quantitative data should be carried out at the end of the data collection period, once all the codes have been finalized -if previous knowledge was used to construct response categories before the instrument was administered to respondents then it is called deductive coding -when there is no previous knowledge it is called inductive coding -basic rules for the development of the coding scheme (coding frame) for quantitative data are that the codes must be mutually exclusive and must be applied constantly Coding boxes -allocated for each question, each box can only contain 1 number -eg. 40 would have 2 boxes Coding transfer sheets -used if the investigator doesnt want to clutter the questionnaire with numerical codes and coding boxes Code Book -used for quantitative data -a master copy of the questionnaire with the question number the question, the full range of codes, the number of columns for each response, variable label Numerical values for codes -qualitative data has to be given numerical value -can be ad hoc or conventional (this one allows for comparison because other studies also use it) www.notesolution.comCoding open questions -have to be grouped by theme and coded -might be given more than a code to ensure that all items mentioned have been accounted for -might simple code for the nature of response (positive, neutral or negative) Coding closed questions -require that any groupings should be defined before the data are collected -response is then allocated to the pre-defined category with a number assigned -important at the design stage of the questionnaire to ensure that a recorded response is always requested Checking returned questionnaires Verification -2 coders should be used to code the entire set independently and someone should check both results Data entry onto computer -optical scanners can be used to code directly -verification involves 2 people independently entering data Cleaning the data -need to eliminate the more obvious errors that will have occurred during the data collection, coding and input stages Range Checks -for data fields containing information about a continuous variable, observations should within a specified range Consistency Checks -certain combinations of within-range values of different variables are either logically impossible or very unlikely Check for bias in the analyses Response bias
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