Disease Table.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Plagues of Antiquity The Pharaoh’s Plague  5000 BC to 700 AD  Person to person contact  Snail fever or blood fluke  1900 BC: Nile Valley of Egypt  Transmission stages: egg  larva disease (endemic o Contamination of water o Long lived hematuria/ 1799 – 1801: Europeans invade Egypt  Egg  Larva  Worm  Human skin schistosomiasis) Now: 1 million deaths annually o Would block veins The Plague of Athens  Athens was known for and did shipment of wine and oil  High death rate due to “Pericles”  Unknown  Athens and Sparta in 27 year old war  430 BC o Route: Ethiopia  Egypt  Athens o Athenians defeated (¼ of the Athens population died) The Roman Fever  Establish Empire in 27 BC  Malaria oAgriculture Believed:  Due to poisonous vapours that emanate o Miasma = ‘Bad Air’ oRoman Marsha  Thought to be from ‘bad air’ from ‘Roman Campagna’  Breeding grounds for mosquitoes  Epidemics: every 5-8 years  Reduced life expectancy: 40-50 years The Antonine Plague  AD 166  Arrived 9 days after fever  Named after the Empire o Route: Mesopotamia  Roman Empire  Europe Antonine who died from  2000+ people died per day this plague  Unknown oMaybe smallpox The Cyprian Plague  250 AD  Unknown oRoute: Ethiopia  Egypt  Roman colonies of North oEither Measles or America Smallpox oLasted for 16 years Jusstnian Plague  541 AD in Constantine  Black rats spread the plague  1 pandemic of Bubonic  541 – 757 AD: Europe, North Africa, and Middle East plague  1 million deaths within 5 years nd oThe 2 largest of the  600 AD: Mortality of 100 million in western Europe pandemics Bubonic Plague 3 major pandemics: 1. Justinian Plague (541 AD) 2. Black Death (1346 – 1352) 3. Third Pandemic (1860s) Black Death  1346 – 1352: 20 million deaths  Bacteria: Yersinia pestis 1. Bubonic plague  Plague of Florence  Route: Coasts of Europe  inland oHighly pathogenic bacillus  Bubo: swollen lymph node oFell hardest on Florence oDue to shipment and trade o1898: Found in rat fleas (Xenopsylla  3 days later, develop a fever oLargest of 3 pandemics oCause is from other lands cheopis) Incubation period: 2-5 days  Universal Plague oPort cities in Europe most affected, followed by sea oTransferred to human fleas (Pulex High fever  Great Pestilence and land trade routes irritans) Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling  Great Mortality  75 million deaths  Route: Infected flea  (Infected) rodent Chills  21 million deaths in Europe  Flea  Human General ill feeling o ⁄ - ⁄ of Europe’s population  Infection: Bite of an infected flea Muscle pain Severe headaches  Impacts:  Person-to-person (pneumonic) Some cases: seizures oQuarantine  Theory of Contagion: realized that  Made ship passengers sit inside for 40 days people must be spreading it from 2. Septicemic plague before coming on land person to person th  Abdominal pain  Regardless, black rats would spread oWas dismissed till 19 century  Blood clotting problems oPest houses  Diarrhea oQuick burials Types:  Fever oBurning of clothes and bedding 1. Bubonic plague: Infection in lymph  Low blood pressure oStudies of human anatomy nodes 2. Septicemic plague: Lymph nodes  Nausea  Theory of Contagion – Girolamo Fracastoro  Organ failure (1478 -1553) (without buboes)  bloodstream oChanges to farming: planting agriculture  animal 3. Pneumonic plague: Lymph nodes   Vomiting bloodstream  lungs  Blackening agriculture  Cut in economy  higher inflation rates  Most serious  Labour technologies developed  2ndmost common 3. Pneumonic plague  Bubo oBigger ships – smaller crews  Mortality rate: 90-95% oNew diversified economy  Severe cough  Frothy, bloody sputum oLocal universities  Rather than remote universities, built local  Difficulty breathing  Death occurs within 24 hours Third Pandemic rd  1860s: 200 million deaths  3 largest of pandemics  Affected Yunnan region of China Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Leprosy  Dr. Armauer Hansen discover  Bacteria: Mycobacterium leprea (M. 1. Indeterminate (IL): Early Prevention:  Hansen’s germ in 1873 Leprea)  Incubation period: 3-5 years disease o Cannot grow on tissue; can o Slow multiplying bacillus  Usually few lesions  Thought to be disease of the soul only grow on mice pads or  Average doubling time: 12-14 days  Loss of sensation is rare o Curse or punishment by God  Lepars were stigmatized due to ‘contagious’ armadillos  Low body temperature  Thought to be transmitted via droplets 2. Tuberculoid (TT): open sores (28-33˚C) promote o From nose during close and frequent  Development of large lesions o Were ‘sinners’ o Had special clothing, arrival notifications, disease contact  Loss of sensation  1980s: Fear of  Not highly infectious  Affected nerves become thick being burning alive, and alive burials transmission armadillos o Maybe due to genetic susceptibility o Leprosariums  First one build in England (936 AD)  humans o Cross protection between leprosy and 3. Borderline Tuberculoid (BT): th  Not same type; more tuberculosis  Lesions are smaller and more  By 13 century, 19 000 in use severe and fatal  Mass of Separation: Would take Lepers out  Mainly affects the skin, nerves, and numerous  1500 – 1400 BC: Originated in mucous membranes of their homes and transferred them over to the far East leper houses 4. Borderline Lepromatous (BL):  Removal of leper houses in 1350 – 1360 AD  1550 BC: First written in Egypt  Can affect people of all race around the  Lesions are numerous  600 BC: Written in India world o Can also consist of papules,  Increase in North America  320 BC: Written in Ancient  Most common in warm, wet areas in plaques, and nodules Diagnosis: Greece; Alexander the Great tropics and subtropics  Punched-out-appearing lesions returned from India  Most common between 10-14 and 35-44 (inverted saucers)  Based on clinical symptoms and lab studies  62 BC: Written in Rome after year olds Treatment: Pompeii’s troops return from o Rare in infants 5. Lepromatous (LL):  Chaulmoogra nut Asia minor Early symptoms: th th  Promin (1941)  16 – 17 century: Problem in Types:  Nasal stuffiness  Dapsone (1950s) Europe 1. Indeterminate (IL): Earliest and mildest  Discharge and bleeding o 18 century: Problem cured  Treatments can control the growth of the form  Swelling of legs and ankles bacteria  bacteria develops resistance 2. Tuberculoid (TT): People with strong Later symptoms: oWHO recommended Multidrug therapy Canada: immunity can reverse, or can continue  1890s – 1957: D’Arcy Island  Skin thickens (MDT) (1991) if don’t  Enlarged liver and lymph nodes  Multidrug Therapy: Dapsone, Rifampicin, and  1815 – 1844: Tracadie, NB 3. Borderline Tuberculoid (BT): Can be  Hoarse voice Clofazimine o Lazaretto on Sheldrake reversed or proceed onwards Island  Deformed fingers and toes o10 million people cured in India 4. Borderline Lepromatous (BL): Disease  ‘Lion Face’: may remain in this stage Prevention: Now: o Eyebrows and eyelashes lost  Prevalence down 5. Lepromatous (LL): Never reverts to a o Nose deformation/collapses  Hand washing less severe form o Ear lobes thicken  Disinfection of fomites, handkerchiefs, and  New cases in India, nasal secretions South Africa, and Brazil o Photophobia and blindness  Household contacts  Young household contacts should be treated with MDT  Vaccine Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Tuberculosis  Present since antiquity  Bacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1. Bovine:  800 BC: oAcid-fast bacillus  Incubation period: Early Treatment:  2400 BC: Typical skeletal abnormalities including Pots ‘Phthisis’ or deformatities found in Egyptian mummies Depends on host’s  500 – 1500 AD: ‘Kings Evil’ or ‘Royal ‘Consumption  460 BC: Hippocrates believed due to evil non-contagious  Spread through air by coughs or sneezes resistance/immunity Touching’ ’ (Homer) air o1-3 bacilli/droplet nuclei  Can be dormant and oClaimed to heal tuberculosis especially  460 BC: oKnown as most wide spread disease o100 000 nuclei droplets/sneeze cause active disease of the lymph nodes (scrofula)  1854: Dr. Brehmer – “TB is curable” Pulmonary  384 – 322 BC: Aristotle believed due to ‘bad and heavy  Active TB is only infectious form  Granulomas in lungs tuberculosis breathing’ oR o 10 – 15 people/year Active: oSanatoriums: TB population isolated and (Hippocrates)  8000 – 4000 BC: Limited to animals  TB in other parts of body, not easily spread  Chronic coughs given rest, fresh air, and good nutrition  1839: oDomesticated animals (ie. cattle)  humans  No acquired resistance  Blood-tinged sputum  Davos, Switzerland; Trieste, Italy  1920 – 1950: Mass screening programs Tuberculosis  Spread to Middle East, India, and Greece via nomadic  Granulomas: Lung tissue affect by TB  Fever first used tribes oBacilli hide in macrophages  eventually kills  Night sweats  White Plague  Mid 19 century: TB was romanticized bacilli/bacilli slowly grows  Weight loss Diagnosis:  The People’s oPeople with TB considered beautiful/erotic: skinny, long  Damage to lungs when bacilli eaten (by-products)  Early diagnosis  Tuberculin skin test (TST) Plague neck and hands, shiny eyes, white skin, and red cheeks 2. Pulmonary: oIf HIV positive, then a TST of 5mm or  Major actors had TB Risks:  Granulomas in lungs  Younger population more susceptible Active: larger indicates positive exposure to TB Discovery:  Females under 30 = higher mortality  Chronic coughs (3 bacteria  1546: Modern Theory of Contagion (Fracastorius)  Certain types of job environments oIf from a country where TB isn’t weeks+) prevalent, consider positive if 10mm or oInvisible germ causing TB oExample: Textile factories  Phlegm and blood  1629 – 1680s: Consumption (Pulmonary TB)  Close contacts of people with TB  Chest pain (3 larger oLeading cause of death in London  Country with high rates of TB weeks+) oIf from a country where TB is prevalent,  1679: Lung nodules = “tubercles” (Franciscus D Sylvius) considered positive if 15mm or larger  Weakened immune systems  Fever oIf positive, then indicates you have been  172th TB communicable (Benjamin Marten) oPeople with HIV/AIDS  Night sweats exposed to TB in the past  19 century: Spread to rest of Europe and N. America  Deadly combination  Weight loss  1854: Jean-Antoine Villemin said it was a specific  Causes of false positives can be microorganism was the cause Types and Forms  Chronic infection exposure to leprosy  Due both being micro-bacterias  1882: Dr. Robert Koch discovered bacteria, Types: 3. Military:  Immunized in the past Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1. Type I: found in India (least virulent)  Forms grain-like oTuberculin test (still used today)  Chest X-Ray or Positive Sputum for Bacili  1895: Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen used radiation for 2. Type A: Africa, China, Japan, Europe, N. America tubercles in almost oIn large institutions, will do positive 3. Type B: Europe and N. America every organ in body sputum progression of disease (still used)  Coughing up a sample, and checking Forms: 4. Pots: Now: 1. Bovine  Affects spine and under a microscope  Highest: Africa, Asia, and Latin America 2. Pulmonary: Primary and most common form bones Treatment:  WHO: 10 million people infected/year 3. Military: Acute form of TB common in infants and  Can be cured by taking a combination of oRates increased since mid-1980s young children; wide spread systemic damage to 5. Scrofula: drugs for 6-12 months  1993: Disease = “global emergency” adrenal glands, liver, spleen, peritoneum, etc.  Affects lymph nodes  2007: WHO says epidemic levelled off 4. Pots: Spine  With active TB: Preventive therapy for 6 months-1 year to reduce developing 5. Scrofula: Lymph nodes and neck disease Canada: 6. Multidrug Resistant TB (MDR-TB): Most  Dr. Selman A. Waksman: Discovery of new  Mortality rate decreased: ⁄ (1900)  ⁄ dangerous due to inconsistent or partial (mid 1980s) treatment, wrong treatment regimens, or antibiotics  Incident rate also declined unreliable drug supply  Bacill Calmet Guerrin (BCG): Vaccination for MDR-TB  1970s: Last sanitaria closed oDiscovered by Robert Koch, Albert  1987 – present : Number of cases relatively constant  2006 – present: 1621 cases of new and relapsed active TB Calmette, and Camille Guérin (1925)  Highest rate: Nunavut = ⁄  TB screening for immigrants and refugee status Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Syphilis  Bacteria: Treponema 1. Primary Stage:  The Great Pox Origin: pallidum  Single chancre Early Treatment:  Morbus gallicus  Girolamo Fracastoro (1478 – 1553): Poem oHuman = only natural host  “One night with Venus may  The French disease about shepherd boy named Syphilis who  Sexually transmitted disease 2. Secondary Stage: lead to a life with Mercury.”  Italian disease insulted a God  punished by that God with oDirect person-to-person  Skin rash oMercury used to be used disease contact with sores (also in  Spanish disease  Mucous membrane lesions Diagnosis:  Polish disease  Columbian Theory: Columbus brought Syphilis uterus)  Rough, red/reddish brown spots on  Christian disease back from New World to Europe oTransfusion of infected palms of hands and soles of feet  Examine sample from chancre oWritten records, skeletal remains of blood  Blood test  British disease  Lues (Lues venereal) Americans, spread pattern oCongenital transmission (via 3. Tertiary Stage:  Pre-Columbian/Anti-Columbian Theory: Many pregnancy) Without treatment: Treatment:  Cupid’s disease populations of native Americans were  Sir Alexander Fleming:  Gandgore (Scotland)  Damage to internal organs Pencillin (“Magic Bullet”)  The Black Lion decimated by syphilis after arrival of o Blood vessels Europeans (16 century) o Bones oKills Treponema pallidum  Great Imitator and prevents further  Venereal Disease o Brain damage Discovery: o Eyes  John Hunter (1728 – 1793): Injected syphilis into o Heart oDoes not repair damage self  developed signs of syphilis  concluded already done o Joints two infections (syphilis and gonorrhea) were o Liver  No vaccines protect against the same  died of heart problems from o Nerves Syphilis tertiary syphilis  Philippe Ricord (1799-1889): Demonstrated 4. Latent Stage: syphilis and gonorrhea were different and three  No symptoms present stages of syphilis  Rudolph Virchow (1821 – 1902): Established was spread through body by blood  Shaudinn and Hoffman (1905): Discovered germ causing syphilis  Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Controversial because used 400 infected black men compared to 200 uninfected  watched them die without treatment and received spinals taps without anesthetics and no consent, heavy metal therapy, received no penicillin or antibiotics  Worldwide: 12 million cases/ year  1920s: death rate = 9000 in US; born infected = 60 000  1940: 13 000 deaths/ year  1949: <6 000 deaths/ year  1970: 0.2/10 000 deaths/ year  2002: >32 000 cases o 4 times as many as in 1997 (Canada) Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Smallpox  1570 – 1085 BC: Evidence on Egyptian mummies  Bacteria: Orthopoxvirus poxviridae  Acute onset: Early Treatment:  Variola virus oPharaoh Ramses V (died 1156 BC) had oVariola virus o Fever pockmarks oIncubation period: 12-14 days o Malaise  Prayer and quack remedies  1122 BC: Described in China and text of India oCan only exist up to 2 days outside of o Rigors  Instillation of smallpox into  100 AD: Plague of Antonine human host o Vomiting non-immune individuals  16 Century: Became serious in England and oAcquired immunity from disease in o Headache oPracticed initially in Africa, childhood o Backache India, and China Europe oFall of empires of the Aztecs and Incas o Occasional delirium o1670: introduced to Turkish  1617: Contributed to settlement of N. America by  Two strains exist:  2- 3 days later: Skin lesions “Ottoman” Empire 1. Variola major o18 century: Europe French and English  8-14 days later: Pustules develop  French-Indian War (1754-1767): Used as  Mortality rate: 3% vaccinated; scabs and heal biological warfare 30-50% unvaccinated o Can lead to severe scarring Treatment: oInfected blankets and handkerchiefs 2. Variola minor  Infectious day prior to appearance  18 century: 60 million Europeans infected  Mortality rate: <2% of rash, until scabs have separated  Edward Jenner (1796): unvaccinated  Secondary infections Inoculated James Phipps with oCase-fatality rate: 20% - 60% cowpox  inoculated with o ⁄ of survivors became blind  Continuous transmission with short- smallpox  Epidemics ever 5-15 years oNo disease developed term carriers  Do not exist in animals oCredited for smallpox vaccine Lady Mary Wortley Montague (1689 -1762)  Direct contact: Inhalation of  1799: Dr. John Clinch vaccinated people in  1715: Got smallpox aerosols/contaminated fomites  18 months later: Brother died due to illness  Route: Mucous membranes  lymph Newfoundland with Jenner’s  1717: Husband appointed ambassador nodes  internal organs  method oLearned about variolation practiced at Ottoman bloodstream court  Infectious virus: oronasal secretions Eradication: o1718: Inoculated 5-year-old son and in skin scabs o1721: Inoculated 4-year-old daughter in  1950s: Europe and North presence of physicians of royal court America  1958: Smallpox in 63 countries  Royal Experiment: Repeated on orphaned children Types o2 %- 3% died  1967: Program of eradication  1721: Boston epidemic  variolation practice in N. 1. Hemorrhagic smallpox/black pox begins  1977: Smallpox is eradicated America  Develop in 5-10% of infected th oControversial people o May 8 , 1980: WHO declares  Mortality rate: 95% world is free of smallpox Now:  August 1978: Janet Parker oMother contracted disease but survived oDebate over stocks of vaccine Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Measles  900 AD: Rhazes didn’t define the symptoms  Bacteria: Paramyxoviridae morbillivirus  Incubation period: 7-14 days  Rubeola between smallpox and measles o Highly contagious Treatment:  Hard Measles o Believed th
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