Disease Table.docx

11 Pages
48 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Semester
Fall

Description
Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Plagues of Antiquity The Pharaoh’s Plague  5000 BC to 700 AD  Person to person contact  Snail fever or blood fluke  1900 BC: Nile Valley of Egypt  Transmission stages: egg  larva disease (endemic o Contamination of water o Long lived hematuria/ 1799 – 1801: Europeans invade Egypt  Egg  Larva  Worm  Human skin schistosomiasis) Now: 1 million deaths annually o Would block veins The Plague of Athens  Athens was known for and did shipment of wine and oil  High death rate due to “Pericles”  Unknown  Athens and Sparta in 27 year old war  430 BC o Route: Ethiopia  Egypt  Athens o Athenians defeated (¼ of the Athens population died) The Roman Fever  Establish Empire in 27 BC  Malaria oAgriculture Believed:  Due to poisonous vapours that emanate o Miasma = ‘Bad Air’ oRoman Marsha  Thought to be from ‘bad air’ from ‘Roman Campagna’  Breeding grounds for mosquitoes  Epidemics: every 5-8 years  Reduced life expectancy: 40-50 years The Antonine Plague  AD 166  Arrived 9 days after fever  Named after the Empire o Route: Mesopotamia  Roman Empire  Europe Antonine who died from  2000+ people died per day this plague  Unknown oMaybe smallpox The Cyprian Plague  250 AD  Unknown oRoute: Ethiopia  Egypt  Roman colonies of North oEither Measles or America Smallpox oLasted for 16 years Jusstnian Plague  541 AD in Constantine  Black rats spread the plague  1 pandemic of Bubonic  541 – 757 AD: Europe, North Africa, and Middle East plague  1 million deaths within 5 years nd oThe 2 largest of the  600 AD: Mortality of 100 million in western Europe pandemics Bubonic Plague 3 major pandemics: 1. Justinian Plague (541 AD) 2. Black Death (1346 – 1352) 3. Third Pandemic (1860s) Black Death  1346 – 1352: 20 million deaths  Bacteria: Yersinia pestis 1. Bubonic plague  Plague of Florence  Route: Coasts of Europe  inland oHighly pathogenic bacillus  Bubo: swollen lymph node oFell hardest on Florence oDue to shipment and trade o1898: Found in rat fleas (Xenopsylla  3 days later, develop a fever oLargest of 3 pandemics oCause is from other lands cheopis) Incubation period: 2-5 days  Universal Plague oPort cities in Europe most affected, followed by sea oTransferred to human fleas (Pulex High fever  Great Pestilence and land trade routes irritans) Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling  Great Mortality  75 million deaths  Route: Infected flea  (Infected) rodent Chills  21 million deaths in Europe  Flea  Human General ill feeling o ⁄ - ⁄ of Europe’s population  Infection: Bite of an infected flea Muscle pain Severe headaches  Impacts:  Person-to-person (pneumonic) Some cases: seizures oQuarantine  Theory of Contagion: realized that  Made ship passengers sit inside for 40 days people must be spreading it from 2. Septicemic plague before coming on land person to person th  Abdominal pain  Regardless, black rats would spread oWas dismissed till 19 century  Blood clotting problems oPest houses  Diarrhea oQuick burials Types:  Fever oBurning of clothes and bedding 1. Bubonic plague: Infection in lymph  Low blood pressure oStudies of human anatomy nodes 2. Septicemic plague: Lymph nodes  Nausea  Theory of Contagion – Girolamo Fracastoro  Organ failure (1478 -1553) (without buboes)  bloodstream oChanges to farming: planting agriculture  animal 3. Pneumonic plague: Lymph nodes   Vomiting bloodstream  lungs  Blackening agriculture  Cut in economy  higher inflation rates  Most serious  Labour technologies developed  2ndmost common 3. Pneumonic plague  Bubo oBigger ships – smaller crews  Mortality rate: 90-95% oNew diversified economy  Severe cough  Frothy, bloody sputum oLocal universities  Rather than remote universities, built local  Difficulty breathing  Death occurs within 24 hours Third Pandemic rd  1860s: 200 million deaths  3 largest of pandemics  Affected Yunnan region of China Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Leprosy  Dr. Armauer Hansen discover  Bacteria: Mycobacterium leprea (M. 1. Indeterminate (IL): Early Prevention:  Hansen’s germ in 1873 Leprea)  Incubation period: 3-5 years disease o Cannot grow on tissue; can o Slow multiplying bacillus  Usually few lesions  Thought to be disease of the soul only grow on mice pads or  Average doubling time: 12-14 days  Loss of sensation is rare o Curse or punishment by God  Lepars were stigmatized due to ‘contagious’ armadillos  Low body temperature  Thought to be transmitted via droplets 2. Tuberculoid (TT): open sores (28-33˚C) promote o From nose during close and frequent  Development of large lesions o Were ‘sinners’ o Had special clothing, arrival notifications, disease contact  Loss of sensation  1980s: Fear of  Not highly infectious  Affected nerves become thick being burning alive, and alive burials transmission armadillos o Maybe due to genetic susceptibility o Leprosariums  First one build in England (936 AD)  humans o Cross protection between leprosy and 3. Borderline Tuberculoid (BT): th  Not same type; more tuberculosis  Lesions are smaller and more  By 13 century, 19 000 in use severe and fatal  Mass of Separation: Would take Lepers out  Mainly affects the skin, nerves, and numerous  1500 – 1400 BC: Originated in mucous membranes of their homes and transferred them over to the far East leper houses 4. Borderline Lepromatous (BL):  Removal of leper houses in 1350 – 1360 AD  1550 BC: First written in Egypt  Can affect people of all race around the  Lesions are numerous  600 BC: Written in India world o Can also consist of papules,  Increase in North America  320 BC: Written in Ancient  Most common in warm, wet areas in plaques, and nodules Diagnosis: Greece; Alexander the Great tropics and subtropics  Punched-out-appearing lesions returned from India  Most common between 10-14 and 35-44 (inverted saucers)  Based on clinical symptoms and lab studies  62 BC: Written in Rome after year olds Treatment: Pompeii’s troops return from o Rare in infants 5. Lepromatous (LL):  Chaulmoogra nut Asia minor Early symptoms: th th  Promin (1941)  16 – 17 century: Problem in Types:  Nasal stuffiness  Dapsone (1950s) Europe 1. Indeterminate (IL): Earliest and mildest  Discharge and bleeding o 18 century: Problem cured  Treatments can control the growth of the form  Swelling of legs and ankles bacteria  bacteria develops resistance 2. Tuberculoid (TT): People with strong Later symptoms: oWHO recommended Multidrug therapy Canada: immunity can reverse, or can continue  1890s – 1957: D’Arcy Island  Skin thickens (MDT) (1991) if don’t  Enlarged liver and lymph nodes  Multidrug Therapy: Dapsone, Rifampicin, and  1815 – 1844: Tracadie, NB 3. Borderline Tuberculoid (BT): Can be  Hoarse voice Clofazimine o Lazaretto on Sheldrake reversed or proceed onwards Island  Deformed fingers and toes o10 million people cured in India 4. Borderline Lepromatous (BL): Disease  ‘Lion Face’: may remain in this stage Prevention: Now: o Eyebrows and eyelashes lost  Prevalence down 5. Lepromatous (LL): Never reverts to a o Nose deformation/collapses  Hand washing less severe form o Ear lobes thicken  Disinfection of fomites, handkerchiefs, and  New cases in India, nasal secretions South Africa, and Brazil o Photophobia and blindness  Household contacts  Young household contacts should be treated with MDT  Vaccine Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Tuberculosis  Present since antiquity  Bacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1. Bovine:  800 BC: oAcid-fast bacillus  Incubation period: Early Treatment:  2400 BC: Typical skeletal abnormalities including Pots ‘Phthisis’ or deformatities found in Egyptian mummies Depends on host’s  500 – 1500 AD: ‘Kings Evil’ or ‘Royal ‘Consumption  460 BC: Hippocrates believed due to evil non-contagious  Spread through air by coughs or sneezes resistance/immunity Touching’ ’ (Homer) air o1-3 bacilli/droplet nuclei  Can be dormant and oClaimed to heal tuberculosis especially  460 BC: oKnown as most wide spread disease o100 000 nuclei droplets/sneeze cause active disease of the lymph nodes (scrofula)  1854: Dr. Brehmer – “TB is curable” Pulmonary  384 – 322 BC: Aristotle believed due to ‘bad and heavy  Active TB is only infectious form  Granulomas in lungs tuberculosis breathing’ oR o 10 – 15 people/year Active: oSanatoriums: TB population isolated and (Hippocrates)  8000 – 4000 BC: Limited to animals  TB in other parts of body, not easily spread  Chronic coughs given rest, fresh air, and good nutrition  1839: oDomesticated animals (ie. cattle)  humans  No acquired resistance  Blood-tinged sputum  Davos, Switzerland; Trieste, Italy  1920 – 1950: Mass screening programs Tuberculosis  Spread to Middle East, India, and Greece via nomadic  Granulomas: Lung tissue affect by TB  Fever first used tribes oBacilli hide in macrophages  eventually kills  Night sweats  White Plague  Mid 19 century: TB was romanticized bacilli/bacilli slowly grows  Weight loss Diagnosis:  The People’s oPeople with TB considered beautiful/erotic: skinny, long  Damage to lungs when bacilli eaten (by-products)  Early diagnosis  Tuberculin skin test (TST) Plague neck and hands, shiny eyes, white skin, and red cheeks 2. Pulmonary: oIf HIV positive, then a TST of 5mm or  Major actors had TB Risks:  Granulomas in lungs  Younger population more susceptible Active: larger indicates positive exposure to TB Discovery:  Females under 30 = higher mortality  Chronic coughs (3 bacteria  1546: Modern Theory of Contagion (Fracastorius)  Certain types of job environments oIf from a country where TB isn’t weeks+) prevalent, consider positive if 10mm or oInvisible germ causing TB oExample: Textile factories  Phlegm and blood  1629 – 1680s: Consumption (Pulmonary TB)  Close contacts of people with TB  Chest pain (3 larger oLeading cause of death in London  Country with high rates of TB weeks+) oIf from a country where TB is prevalent,  1679: Lung nodules = “tubercles” (Franciscus D Sylvius) considered positive if 15mm or larger  Weakened immune systems  Fever oIf positive, then indicates you have been  172th TB communicable (Benjamin Marten) oPeople with HIV/AIDS  Night sweats exposed to TB in the past  19 century: Spread to rest of Europe and N. America  Deadly combination  Weight loss  1854: Jean-Antoine Villemin said it was a specific  Causes of false positives can be microorganism was the cause Types and Forms  Chronic infection exposure to leprosy  Due both being micro-bacterias  1882: Dr. Robert Koch discovered bacteria, Types: 3. Military:  Immunized in the past Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1. Type I: found in India (least virulent)  Forms grain-like oTuberculin test (still used today)  Chest X-Ray or Positive Sputum for Bacili  1895: Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen used radiation for 2. Type A: Africa, China, Japan, Europe, N. America tubercles in almost oIn large institutions, will do positive 3. Type B: Europe and N. America every organ in body sputum progression of disease (still used)  Coughing up a sample, and checking Forms: 4. Pots: Now: 1. Bovine  Affects spine and under a microscope  Highest: Africa, Asia, and Latin America 2. Pulmonary: Primary and most common form bones Treatment:  WHO: 10 million people infected/year 3. Military: Acute form of TB common in infants and  Can be cured by taking a combination of oRates increased since mid-1980s young children; wide spread systemic damage to 5. Scrofula: drugs for 6-12 months  1993: Disease = “global emergency” adrenal glands, liver, spleen, peritoneum, etc.  Affects lymph nodes  2007: WHO says epidemic levelled off 4. Pots: Spine  With active TB: Preventive therapy for 6 months-1 year to reduce developing 5. Scrofula: Lymph nodes and neck disease Canada: 6. Multidrug Resistant TB (MDR-TB): Most  Dr. Selman A. Waksman: Discovery of new  Mortality rate decreased: ⁄ (1900)  ⁄ dangerous due to inconsistent or partial (mid 1980s) treatment, wrong treatment regimens, or antibiotics  Incident rate also declined unreliable drug supply  Bacill Calmet Guerrin (BCG): Vaccination for MDR-TB  1970s: Last sanitaria closed oDiscovered by Robert Koch, Albert  1987 – present : Number of cases relatively constant  2006 – present: 1621 cases of new and relapsed active TB Calmette, and Camille Guérin (1925)  Highest rate: Nunavut = ⁄  TB screening for immigrants and refugee status Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Syphilis  Bacteria: Treponema 1. Primary Stage:  The Great Pox Origin: pallidum  Single chancre Early Treatment:  Morbus gallicus  Girolamo Fracastoro (1478 – 1553): Poem oHuman = only natural host  “One night with Venus may  The French disease about shepherd boy named Syphilis who  Sexually transmitted disease 2. Secondary Stage: lead to a life with Mercury.”  Italian disease insulted a God  punished by that God with oDirect person-to-person  Skin rash oMercury used to be used disease contact with sores (also in  Spanish disease  Mucous membrane lesions Diagnosis:  Polish disease  Columbian Theory: Columbus brought Syphilis uterus)  Rough, red/reddish brown spots on  Christian disease back from New World to Europe oTransfusion of infected palms of hands and soles of feet  Examine sample from chancre oWritten records, skeletal remains of blood  Blood test  British disease  Lues (Lues venereal) Americans, spread pattern oCongenital transmission (via 3. Tertiary Stage:  Pre-Columbian/Anti-Columbian Theory: Many pregnancy) Without treatment: Treatment:  Cupid’s disease populations of native Americans were  Sir Alexander Fleming:  Gandgore (Scotland)  Damage to internal organs Pencillin (“Magic Bullet”)  The Black Lion decimated by syphilis after arrival of o Blood vessels Europeans (16 century) o Bones oKills Treponema pallidum  Great Imitator and prevents further  Venereal Disease o Brain damage Discovery: o Eyes  John Hunter (1728 – 1793): Injected syphilis into o Heart oDoes not repair damage self  developed signs of syphilis  concluded already done o Joints two infections (syphilis and gonorrhea) were o Liver  No vaccines protect against the same  died of heart problems from o Nerves Syphilis tertiary syphilis  Philippe Ricord (1799-1889): Demonstrated 4. Latent Stage: syphilis and gonorrhea were different and three  No symptoms present stages of syphilis  Rudolph Virchow (1821 – 1902): Established was spread through body by blood  Shaudinn and Hoffman (1905): Discovered germ causing syphilis  Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Controversial because used 400 infected black men compared to 200 uninfected  watched them die without treatment and received spinals taps without anesthetics and no consent, heavy metal therapy, received no penicillin or antibiotics  Worldwide: 12 million cases/ year  1920s: death rate = 9000 in US; born infected = 60 000  1940: 13 000 deaths/ year  1949: <6 000 deaths/ year  1970: 0.2/10 000 deaths/ year  2002: >32 000 cases o 4 times as many as in 1997 (Canada) Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Smallpox  1570 – 1085 BC: Evidence on Egyptian mummies  Bacteria: Orthopoxvirus poxviridae  Acute onset: Early Treatment:  Variola virus oPharaoh Ramses V (died 1156 BC) had oVariola virus o Fever pockmarks oIncubation period: 12-14 days o Malaise  Prayer and quack remedies  1122 BC: Described in China and text of India oCan only exist up to 2 days outside of o Rigors  Instillation of smallpox into  100 AD: Plague of Antonine human host o Vomiting non-immune individuals  16 Century: Became serious in England and oAcquired immunity from disease in o Headache oPracticed initially in Africa, childhood o Backache India, and China Europe oFall of empires of the Aztecs and Incas o Occasional delirium o1670: introduced to Turkish  1617: Contributed to settlement of N. America by  Two strains exist:  2- 3 days later: Skin lesions “Ottoman” Empire 1. Variola major o18 century: Europe French and English  8-14 days later: Pustules develop  French-Indian War (1754-1767): Used as  Mortality rate: 3% vaccinated; scabs and heal biological warfare 30-50% unvaccinated o Can lead to severe scarring Treatment: oInfected blankets and handkerchiefs 2. Variola minor  Infectious day prior to appearance  18 century: 60 million Europeans infected  Mortality rate: <2% of rash, until scabs have separated  Edward Jenner (1796): unvaccinated  Secondary infections Inoculated James Phipps with oCase-fatality rate: 20% - 60% cowpox  inoculated with o ⁄ of survivors became blind  Continuous transmission with short- smallpox  Epidemics ever 5-15 years oNo disease developed term carriers  Do not exist in animals oCredited for smallpox vaccine Lady Mary Wortley Montague (1689 -1762)  Direct contact: Inhalation of  1799: Dr. John Clinch vaccinated people in  1715: Got smallpox aerosols/contaminated fomites  18 months later: Brother died due to illness  Route: Mucous membranes  lymph Newfoundland with Jenner’s  1717: Husband appointed ambassador nodes  internal organs  method oLearned about variolation practiced at Ottoman bloodstream court  Infectious virus: oronasal secretions Eradication: o1718: Inoculated 5-year-old son and in skin scabs o1721: Inoculated 4-year-old daughter in  1950s: Europe and North presence of physicians of royal court America  1958: Smallpox in 63 countries  Royal Experiment: Repeated on orphaned children Types o2 %- 3% died  1967: Program of eradication  1721: Boston epidemic  variolation practice in N. 1. Hemorrhagic smallpox/black pox begins  1977: Smallpox is eradicated America  Develop in 5-10% of infected th oControversial people o May 8 , 1980: WHO declares  Mortality rate: 95% world is free of smallpox Now:  August 1978: Janet Parker oMother contracted disease but survived oDebate over stocks of vaccine Disease History and Information Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Measles  900 AD: Rhazes didn’t define the symptoms  Bacteria: Paramyxoviridae morbillivirus  Incubation period: 7-14 days  Rubeola between smallpox and measles o Highly contagious Treatment:  Hard Measles o Believed th
More Less

Related notes for HLTB21H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit