Tutorial Activity 4

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Question 1: Describe the contributions of Paul Ehrich and Jean-Antoine Villemin to the understanding of tuberculosis. (2 marks) - Ehrich: derived a method of staining ( red fuchshin followed by treatment with nitric acid ) done so because it is gram positive and is weakly stained by the Gram method because of its waxy skin wall -> he showed the clinical symptoms in 1887, and demonstrated that he was infected - Villemin : from France, followed Laennec in saying that tuberculosis was a specific disease caused by a specific agent, in 1865 he caused tuberculosis in rabbits by injecting them with matter from human tubercles (from the lung cavity of a tuberculosis paitent who had died 33 hours earlier) -> two other rabbits served as controls and were injected with tissue fluid from a burn blister - his announcement was greeted with derision and there was still arguments that consumption was due to conditions of poverty and overindulgence. Question 2: Identify at least four examples of M. tuberculosis possibly afflicting populations from Antiquity to before the Middle Ages. - TB was limited to animals in prehistoric times - Archaeological evidence indicates that tuberculosis afflicted prehistoric men and women in Eurasia and Africa at least from the Neolithic period - Stone Age skeletons with lesions which may have been caused by tuberculosis of the spine have been unearthered in Britain and Germany - Spinal tuberculosis (Potts disease) found in Egyptian mummies from 37
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