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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

PLAGUES AND PEOPLES NOTES Tuberculosis- Textbook notes - French Military physician, Jean Antoine Villemin succeeded in transmitting TB to rabbits. TB found in lungs and lumph nodes of only those that received pus - Villemins critic Hermann Pidoux said consumption in poor was due to condition of poverty including overwork, malnutrition, unsanitary housing; and developed in rich because of laziness, habits of luxury, overeating organic depletion - German physician Robert Koch made a presentation to Berlin Physiological society claiming he discovered the microbe of TB - Anthrax was a problem among sheep (and sometimes humans) in and around Wollstein, Koch examined carcasses of sheep and in obsessive fashion was able to characterize the germ of anthrax rod shaped bacterium named Bacillus anthracis. Afterwards he found the microbe that caused TB (M.Tuberculosis) - Microscopic bacillus is colourless and cant be easily seen with the light microscope making it visible required heating and a special aniline dye (methylene blue) - Staining technique was improved by Paul Ehrlich, bacilli would retain dye colour if first stained with red fuschsin followed by an acid wash - Koch prematurely announced he discovered a protective substance made from an extract of the bacilli called tuberculin [known today as PDD (purified protein derivative). Tuberculin produced fever, malaise and signs of illness tuberculin skin test used now to see if youve been exposed - Koch also showed (Villemin did a decade before) Bovine TB could be infections for human via milk - Tubercle bacilli can survive in moist sputum for 6-8 months; infection may result in as few as five bacteria reach the grape like clusters of the think-walled air sacs - One of the alveolus, macrophages engulfs the bacteria to initiate an infection. From here, bacilli within the macrophage can be transported to other parts of the body by lymph channels. With more reaction, theres an inflammatory response and becomes more intense, and fluid (lymph) leaks into the region. The site becomes infiltrated (with fiber secreting cells) fibroblasts, which surround the free and microphage- enclosed bacilli in an attempt to wall them off. Tubercle grows, pushing away normal tissue and producing larger visible tubercles in the lung - In the majority, when bacterias inhaled, bacilli are killed by macrophages or localized and grow slowly within tubercles www.notesolution.com- M. Tuberculosis can survive and live within macrophage because of its waxy lipid cell - Cell-mediated immunity (2-edged sword) required for protection but involved in tissue damage - Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays, which made the tubercular lesions caused by the disease visible long before its symptoms became noticeable - Stethoscope developed by Rene Laennec on basis of his clinic experience, he theorized that phthisis, scrofula and military TB were different forms of the same disease - Hippocrates recommended a change in climate for phthisis; notion of benefits of clean air and th sunshine lasted well into the 20 century - After Kochs discovery of the tubercle bacillus, anti=tuberculosis campaigns began, 1 in Europe than America - Hermann Biggs of New York Department of Public Health issued an education leaflet he believed that protection of public health was more important than individual freedom Treatment - Selman Waksman began a systematic effort to identify soil microbes that could produce substances that might be useful in the control of infectious disease - Waksmans graduate student, Albert Schatz, discovered that a mold named Steptomyces Griseus obtained from throat of a sick chicken that had been eating soil was an antagonist. It limited the survival of Tubercle Bacilli in both soil and sewage - Streptomycin inhibited the growth of tubercle bacilli both in body and test tubes. Soon there were signs of stretpmycin-resistant TB bacilli. This and further drugs eliminated sanitary. - In absence of drug resistance, combination of isonazid and rifampin administered for nine months is curative for TB Vaccination - Two French bacteriologists named Albert Calmette and Camille Guerrin used a technique first used in 1882 by Louis Pasteur-theory - Injection of (M.Bovine) BCG produces a mild infection, induces immunity and has never resulted in virulent infection www.notesolution.com
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