HLTA01 - Chapter 9

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Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Semester
Winter

Description
HLTA01 Plagues and Peoples Chapter 9 – Smallpox, the Spotted Plague - 1520 expedition led by Panfilo deNarvaez arrived from Spanish Cuba o Slave had smallpox  spread from village to village throughout Yucatan o Resulted in famine and havoc because there weren’t enough people to farm and protect cities o Epidemic didn’t allow Aztecs to pursue the demoralized Spaniards  Allowed them to rest and regroup  gathered Indian allies - Only Aztecs died from smallpox - Spaniards weren’t affected  because they were seen as beneficiaries of divine favor (superior), it led to Aztecs and Amerindians to accept Christianity - Smallpox arrived in Peru by land in 1526  killed most of Inca population - Old World Disease which had no immunity for the New World Amerindians - Spread in Mexico and Peru - 20 century – death of 300 million people - Makeup used among wealth European survivors to hide the scars A Look Back - Unknown when smallpox began to infect humans - Suspected that it came from a similar disease from domesticated animals after 10 000 BC - Best evidence in 3 mummies from 1570 to 1085 BC  Ramses V - Pockmarks = scars - Spread from West to China first appearing around 200 BC - Epidemic Plague of Antonius  smallpox in Greece and Rome in AD 100 th th - Eurasia smallpox  8 and 9 centuries during Islamic expansion across north Africa and then into Spain and Portugal - Christian priest – Ahrun gave a clear description of disease showing the difference between it and measles - Serious in England and Europe in 16th century - Contributed to Spanish conquests and settlement of North America by the French and English - Colonel Henry Bouquet – contaminated blankets with pustules from smallpox and gave them to the susceptible Indians - Infected South Africa in ship docking in Capetown in 1713 and again by Sri Lanka in 1755 - First outbreak in Americas – African slaves - Smallpox was first recorded in Sydney, Australia in 1789 Disease of Smallpox - Cause = virus - Can possibly be seen with light microscope - Capsid = outer surface; resembles facets of diamonds, and its inner dumbbell-shaped core contains DNA - 200 genes; 35 virulent - Other poxviruses – monkeypox, cowpox, milker’s node, tanapox, and chicken pox - Zoonotic monkeypox is similar to smallpox - Smallpox virus enters body through droplet infection by inhalation o Can be acquired by direct contact or through contaminated formities (clothing, bedding, blankets and dust) - Infectious material from pustules can remain infectious for months - Virus multiplies in mucus membranes of nose and mouth - 1 week – no sign of illness, virus can be spread by coughing or by nasal mucus - Virus moves to lymph nodes and then to internal organs via bloodstream o Virus multiplies here again - Virus reente
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