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Health Studies
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Anna Walsh

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Cause Disease Symptoms TreatmentPrevention OriginToday Transmission - Yersina pestis - 2-10 days for symptoms to develop - rich fled - first found in 1346, NW Black Plague a bacillus - Bubonic: buboes = large swellings (grapefruit - mistaken for Spanish Flu Caspian Sea size), purpleblack, filled of pus swollen lymph - -0OL0;094-0*48Z7,9K - pandemic in Asia, Middle - Black - From the rat glands (under armpits, groin) - flagellants = ppl whipped East, North Africa, Europe in flea - Nausea, vomiting, blisters, fever, headache, themselves to ward of 18 CE Death (Xenopsylla delirium, chills, muscle pain plague and sin spread - lasted 7 years, 5-8 months at a - Universal cheopis) can - 45 infected ppl died within 8 days of infection disease bc spilled pus time in region Plague survive on - immortality rate = 90-95% until 1700s - diagnosed by examining skin - death rate 30-50% in Europe own - Pneumonic = affects respiratory system - scapegoat: Jews, lepers, and Middle East - Human flea coughing, congestion, bloody cough foreigners, beggars - .K,3J0:74508897:.9:70- . - Great (Pulex - Septicemia = affects blood black nails, bleeding miasmas (finger pointing) everyone was dying Pestilence irritans) into skin, blood clots, fever, lox BP, diarrhea, - Great London Fire in 1665 - flourish in warm weather, transferred to organ failure stopped plague dormant in winter - Great humans from - Eyam city where priest - exists today: California, Utah, Mortality rats or infect William Mompesson tried Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico ppl spreading self-quarantine - killed almost 75 million, 20 in Europe alone - Mycobact- - skin lesions and necrosis - 2 kinds: Paucibacillary (little - Dr. Armauer Hansen erium leprae - chronic infectious disease bacteria, negative skin discovered in 1873 - takes 2-14 days for bacteria to double smear, single to 5 lesions) - First written in Egypt in 1550 - spread with - can take 20 years for symptoms to show and Multibacillary (many BC and then in India in 600 skin contact - Moller Christensen = found 80% lepers bacteria, positive smear or BC (lesions), resp. (hyperimmune) had a facial deformity more than 5 lesions) - Prevalence down droplets, characteristic of leprosy facies leprosa - used oils and extracts - Cured with MDT constant - skin lesions, nerve thickening, sensory loss chaulmoogra in 1940 - New cases in India, South contact with - showed positive skin smears - Promin used to help treat Africa, Brazil area infected ppl - irreversible damage to skin, nerves, eyes leprosy IV injection Leprosy - not highly infectious - Thalidomide was used but - +,38038 - seen in 10-14 and 35-44 years old mostly caused birth defects - Dapsone and Diason first Disease - Intermediate (IL) = earliest, mildest, few # used but showed resistance hypopigmented macules (cutaneous lesions), no - MDT = Multi Drug sensation loss, can progress or be fought Treatment used to stop drug resistance (dapsone, - Tuberculloid (TT) = large lesions, anesthesia, thick rifampicin, cofazimine) nerves, can progress to B or L - Leprosaria = hospitals for - Borderline Tuberculloid (BT) = like TT but smaller lepers segregated lesions and can go updown levels - lepers wore yellow cloaks - Borderline Borderline (BB) = cutaneous lesions, with badges and bells and smaller but more that TT had to walk opposite wind www.notesolution.com - Borderline Lepromatous (BL) = numerous lesions, - lepers were considered can be papules, plaques, nodules, and look inverted legally dead had no legal 5:3.K04:9 rights excepts that spouse .,39702,77:39LO97:O - Lepromatous (LL) = cannot become less severe, dead early nerve involvement can go unnoticed, many lesions, plaques, nodules, papules, macules, nasal stuffiness, discharge, bleeding, swelling of leg and anklesuntreated forehead thickens (leonine facies) and legs, hoarse voice, loss of eyebrowseyelashes, sensory loss, nose collapse or misshapen, eye photophobia (light sensitivity), glaucoma, ulcer (nodule breakdown), organ infection (liver and lymph swell), scar nerves and thicken - acid fast - chronic disease, can linger for months and years - Waksman discovered many - 1882 Robert Kosh discovered bacillus: sometimes before appearing antibiotics M. TB Mycobact- - bacteria r02,L38;L,-O09K74:JK4:9K4898OL109L20 - infections went down - endemic in Eurasia, North erium dormant until resistance fails - indefinite and because ppl with leprosy Africa, and possibly the tuberculosis variable incubation period somehow were immune to Americas (from the Neolithic - 30 species - TB disease = the active form that shows symptoms TB period) identified 15 and is contagious (10% ppl) - 1944 researchers had - 800 BC affected native Tuberculosis can cause - commonly associated with the lungs and can affect discovered streptomycin , Americans - first name disorders like any tissue or organ in the body proving effective for - 2400 BC found in Egyptian TB but not - frequently causes disease in the meninges, inhibiting the disease mummies was - bovine type intestines, bones, lymph glands surrounding the - 1946-52: para-amino- - China in 206 BC 7 AD, TB Phthisis = infects ppl neck, skin, spine, kidneys, and genitals salicylic acid (PAS) and L3,Z42038O:3J8 disease of - aerial - acute forms in infants, can be fatal in a matter of isoniazid (isonicotinic acid - Chinese medical texts consump- transmission: weeks hydrazide, or INH) effective provided detailed treatments of tion spread in resp. - acute form: miliary TB small, grain like tubercles when used with the disease written in Sui and droplets = are created simultaneously in almost every organ streptomycin Tang dynasties th th - White droplet nuclei in the body) - diagnosis can be made with - development in 18 -20 CE Plague (bc (talk, cough, - bovine bacilli ingested through digestive tract a tuberculin skin test (TST) increased epidemic in Europe, of sneeze, spit, (milkproducts) and can cause intestinal disease - treated with DOTS (Directly Americas, Africa and Asia sing, and other can lead to pulmonary or military TB Observe Treatment prevalence rates approached complex- resp. - tubercular meningitis is not chronic, the rest are Shortcourse) 100% of pop in some places of ion) functions) - pulmonary TB = most common form: increasingly - L1.,39L,J3480ZL9K%$% exposure - droplet frequent and violent cough that produces a purulent or chest x-ray, Mantoux is - countries with highest TB emitted by a sputum sometimes streaked with blood used mortality rates have been those TB individuals - symptoms include fatigue, lethargy, anorexia, - chest x ray only used for with low standards of living, could contain chills, muscular aches, sweating, low-grade fevers pulmonary TB poor working conditions and between 1-3 that continue indefinitely - anti-tuberculosis inadequate treatment programs bacilli - tubercles = caseous areas: cheesy consistency, can vaccination: BCG (bacillus - 1970s, over 20 nations (all www.notesolution.com
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