chapter 8.pdf

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Health Studies
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 8Respondent ConditioningOperant behaviorscontrolled by their consequencesOperant conditioninginvolves the manipulation of consequencesRespondent behaviorscontrolled by antecedent stimuliRespondent consequencesinvolves the manipulation of antecedent stimuliDefining Respondent ConditioningUnconditioned responses URelicited by antecedent stimuli even though no conditioning or learning has occurred A UR occurs in all healthy people when an unconditioned stimulus US is presentedHumans have evolved to respond to USs because the URs have survival valueA UR is a natural reflexive action of the body that occurs when a US is presentRespondent conditioning occurs when a previously neutral stimulus NS is paired with a USas a result the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus CS and elicits a conditioned response CR similar to the URA UR or CR is called a respondent behaviorRespondent conditioning is also called classical conditioningPavlovian conditioningPavlovshowed that dogs salivated when meat powder was placed in their mouths US will elicit a UR then presented a NS the sound of a metronome just before he put the meat powder in the dogs mouthhe presented the sound and meat powder together a number of times then presented metronome by itselffound that dog salivated to the sound of the metronome without the meat powder in its mouth sound of metronome became a CS because it was paired a number of times with the meat powderAny stimulus can become a CS is paired a number of times with a USTiming of the Neutral Stimulus and Unconditioned StimulusThe timing of the NS and US is important if respondent conditioning is to occurThe US should occur immediately after the onset of the NSincreases likelihood that NS will become CSwwwnotesolutioncom
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