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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Michael Inzlicht

Pick the dateTYPE THE DOCUMENT TITLEMain Teaching Points Module 11 Introduction to Neuropsychology1The 10 Myth2What is Neuropsychology3Heart Mind and Brain The Early History of Neuropsychology 4The MindBody Problem Module 12 The Recent History of Neuropsychology1Cataloguing the Effects of Lesions2Focus on the Neuron3The Brain Mappers4Functional Neurosurgery5The Paradigm Shift in NeuropsychologyModule 11 Introduction to NeuropsychologyThe 10 MythMyth Humans use only 10 of their brain OverinterpretationMarieJeanPierre FlourensKarl Lashleyanimals were able to perform basic function after almost 90 of their brains were damaged What is NeuropsychologyNeuropsychologythe study of the relation between behaviour and the activity of the brain Assumes that an individuals behaviour is at least in part the result of the activity in the brain Types of Neuropsychologists 1Clinical Neuropsychologythe branch of neuropsychology concerned with psychological assessment management and rehabilitation of neurological disease and injury2Experimental Neuropsychologythe branch of neuropsychology concerned with how human behaviour arises from brain activity which includes explaining how patterns of behavioural impairments can be explained in terms of disruptions to the damaged neural components Aka Cognitive NeuropsychologyCognitive NeuroscienceHeart Mind and Brain The Early History of NeuropsychologyAHuman thoughts and behaviours were not always attributed to the brain 1Empedocles oAll matter was composed of four elements fire air water earthoCardiacCardiocentric Hypothesis Heart was the source of human behaviour 2Aristotle oHeart is normally very active and warmsource of thought and sensation oBrain served as a radiator cooling the bloodwwwnotesolutioncomPick the dateTYPE THE DOCUMENT TITLEBCephalocentric HypothesisBrain HypothesisoHippocratesGalenoBrain is responsible for human behaviourThe MindBody ProblemRene Descartes Reflexive Theory of the control of behaviourthe flow of animal spirits through valvules within nervous tissue filaments Reflexive behaviour caused by external stimuli animal spiritsAccounted for some involuntary behaviours withdrawing ones hand from a hot stimulusbut could not account for voluntary behaviour Believed that voluntary behaviours depended on the interface of the mechanistic body with a rational decisionmaking soulPineal glandwas single and surrounded by CSFCavities of CSF were reservoirs for the animal spirits necessary for actionvoluntary action would produce small movements of the pineal gland resulting in the release of animal spirits throughout the body and producing movement of the bodyInfluenced by technologies of that time hydraulics Dualismthe mind and body are separate but interacting entities Mind and body do interact in a causal fashion without specifying howMind and body function in parallel without interactingMind can affect the body but the body cannot affect the mind Monismmind and body are unitary Module 12 The Recent History of NeuropsychologyYear 19901990s would be the decade of the brainNeuropsychology draws from a number of very established disciplines anthropology biology physiology neurology Cataloging the Effects of LesionsAContributors to Passive Role of Brain1JeanCesar Lagallois oLesioning the medulla resulted in the immediate cessation of breathingdiscovery of respiratory center within the medulla oFirst widely accepted function to be localized within the brain2Charles BellFrancois Magendie oStudied the nerves that exited the spinal corddorsal roots nerves that leave the spinal cord on the back of the spinal cordhad sensory functions ventral roots nerves that leave the spinal cord on the front were responsible for motor functions wwwnotesolutioncomPick the dateTYPE THE DOCUMENT TITLEFunctional Segregation of spinal cord set stage to examine whether or not the brain was also organized into separate sensory and motor components BFunctional and Anatomical Segregation 1Franz Joseph Gall oStated that there were 27 distinct cognitive abilities faculties that could be localized on the cortex of the human brainwere poorly defined faculties love of friends wisdom acquisitiveness destructiveness etcoCognitive skills such as mathematical ability memory for words and spoken language were mediated by separate areas of the brainoBelieved that the cortex behaved like muscles in that increased size of an area was associated with increased functionphrenology Increase in size could result in a deformation of the skull which then could be measured empirically by using a technique called cranioscopy Phrenologythe measurements of the skull and pronouncement on personality 2MarieJeanPierre Flourens oStrong critic against phrenologyphrenology was at best subjective and that all analyses were performed post hoc oFirm believer of empirical methodlesioning techniques to study corresponding effects on behaviour Cerebellumcoordinated movementMedullavital functions Observed that sometimes following lesions function may be restored oEquipotentialitycortex functioned as a whole and that there was no functional specialization within the cortex 3Friedrich Goltz oBelieved in Flourens equipotentialityperformed a number of experiments involving the removal of the cortex in dogs and cats and observed that only the size of the lesion not the location of the lesion affected the behaviour of the nonhuman animal 4David Ferrierbehavioural observations of decorticate dogs and monkeys were inconsistent with the position of cortical equipotentiality oSuggested that the results of the lesion experiments were consistent with the localization of sensory and motor functions within discrete portions of the cortex 5Gustav FritshEduard Hitzig oDemonstrated that the frontal cortex of the dog was essential for the production of normal movement oOverturned theory of cortical equipotentiality Gall was right but for wrong reasonGoltz and Fluorens used right techniques but came to the wrong conclusions6Paul Brocawwwnotesolutioncom
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