3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Smallpox, Measles, & Malaria Smallpox-Variola vera -1715 smallpox, 18 mths later brother died of pox. 1717 Disease origins husband appointed ambassador -Old worldindiscriminate disease -learned about variolation practiced at ottoman court -10,000 BC- first agricultural settlements in NE Africa -inoculated 5 yr old son 1718 India by Egyptian merchants -4yr old daughter inoculate in presence of physicians of - evidence on Egyptian mummies (1570-1085 BC) royal court(London 1721) -pharoah ramses v pockmarks -royal experiment -1122 BC china and mentioned in ancient texts of india -repeat of experim. On orphaned children -100 AD-plague of antonine -variolation gained acceptance in royal fam. -europe- frequent epidemic during middle ages -2-3% of variolated ppl died from disease -16 century- became serious disease in England and -case fatality rate assoc. w variolation 10 times lower than assoc. w naturally occurring smallpox Europe Effects -1721 boston epidemic led to reg. practice of variolation in -plague of antonine NA. controversy. 1 comparitive study- fatlity rate for th naturall contracted disease of 14% compared to 2% among -new world in 16 century-fall of empires of Aztecs and incas -contributed to settlement of NA by French &English (1617) vario. Individs. -biological warfare Edward Jenner(1729-1823) -vario. Led to practice of vaccination -french Indian war (1754-1767) deliberate use of smallpox -slave trade -planned experiment Etiology -1796 dairymaid sarah nelms fresh cowpox lesions -inoculated 8 yr old james Phipps. Again w fresh smallpox -genus: orthopoxvirus, family poxviridae -at least 2 strains exist: variola major and minor lesion. No disease developed -genus also monkeypox, cowpox, camelpox, chickenpox, and -gradually vario. Became prohibited in England Smallpox Canada ectromelia (mousepox) viruses -Variola minor- mortality rate less than 2% in unvaccinated -1796 dr. john clinch forwarded letter to dr. jenner ppl. variola major- 3% and 30-50% requesting info. About using cowpox pustule matter -hemorrhagic smallpox or black pox: malignant and -1799 vaccinating ppl in nfl th hemorrhagic forms of variola major develop in approx. 5- Development in 20 century 10% of infected ppl- almost always fatal; mortality rate 95% -late 19 realized subsequent revaccination necessary Transmission -1950s smallpox eradicated
More Less

Related notes for HLTB21H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.