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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Smallpox, Measles, & Malaria Smallpox-Variola vera -1715 smallpox, 18 mths later brother died of pox. 1717 Disease origins husband appointed ambassador -Old worldindiscriminate disease -learned about variolation practiced at ottoman court -10,000 BC- first agricultural settlements in NE Africa -inoculated 5 yr old son 1718 India by Egyptian merchants -4yr old daughter inoculate in presence of physicians of - evidence on Egyptian mummies (1570-1085 BC) royal court(London 1721) -pharoah ramses v pockmarks -royal experiment -1122 BC china and mentioned in ancient texts of india -repeat of experim. On orphaned children -100 AD-plague of antonine -variolation gained acceptance in royal fam. -europe- frequent epidemic during middle ages -2-3% of variolated ppl died from disease -16 century- became serious disease in England and -case fatality rate assoc. w variolation 10 times lower than assoc. w naturally occurring smallpox Europe Effects -1721 boston epidemic led to reg. practice of variolation in -plague of antonine NA. controversy. 1 comparitive study- fatlity rate for th naturall contracted disease of 14% compared to 2% among -new world in 16 century-fall of empires of Aztecs and incas -contributed to settlement of NA by French &English (1617) vario. Individs. -biological warfare Edward Jenner(1729-1823) -vario. Led to practice of vaccination -french Indian war (1754-1767) deliberate use of smallpox -slave trade -planned experiment Etiology -1796 dairymaid sarah nelms fresh cowpox lesions -inoculated 8 yr old james Phipps. Again w fresh smallpox -genus: orthopoxvirus, family poxviridae -at least 2 strains exist: variola major and minor lesion. No disease developed -genus also monkeypox, cowpox, camelpox, chickenpox, and -gradually vario. Became prohibited in England Smallpox Canada ectromelia (mousepox) viruses -Variola minor- mortality rate less than 2% in unvaccinated -1796 dr. john clinch forwarded letter to dr. jenner ppl. variola major- 3% and 30-50% requesting info. About using cowpox pustule matter -hemorrhagic smallpox or black pox: malignant and -1799 vaccinating ppl in nfl th hemorrhagic forms of variola major develop in approx. 5- Development in 20 century 10% of infected ppl- almost always fatal; mortality rate 95% -late 19 realized subsequent revaccination necessary Transmission -1950s smallpox eradicated
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