Plagues and Peoples Exam Notes

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HEALTH STUDIES EXAM REVIEWChapter 12 Disease EcologyDefinitionsParasitesorganism that grows feeds and is sheltered on or in a different organism and that does not contribute to the survival of its host Can be in different formsUnable to survive on their own depends on hostVirusultimate microparasitesmaller than bacteria neither cells nor organisms can only reproduce within their hostLive in host10 times magnification to be seen electrical microscope Macroparasitescomposed of many cells cycles through transmissionstages eggs and larvae which pass into the external environmentEx malaria lives in humans but needs a vector to survivetransport to humansCan be seen with the naked eye can live in their host or live in their host or live on surfaceProtozoa single cellLight microscope do not multiply within hostlay eggs outside then come back in to cause harm to the hostTransmissionmovement of a parasite from host to hostMust occur for pathogen to surviveIncubation periodinterval of time required for development of a disease we can see pathogen is replicating inside the host but no symptoms occur inside the host syphilis dormant but then active developmentLatent periodseemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness dormant stage in the process of causing the disease nothing happens at firstThe difference between incubation and latent periods is that one is active and the other is notParasite virulencecapacity of a parasite to cause disease how strong the parasite to cause harm to the host high virulencestrong low virulenceweakZoonotic infections animal infections that can be transmitted to humansstarted in animals first then transmitted to a personoriginate from animal sources Modes of Disease Transmission Direct transmissionfrom person to person breathing at the same time touching no vector Indirectthrough a common routevector eg contaminated airwater mosquito west nilemalaria some parasites are known not to be able to transmit through air particlesPortal of entryDermalthrough the skin eg fungusIngestionthrough the mouth eg Ecoli in waterInhalationduring respiration eg particulate matterAspirationairway entry legionnaires diseaseTypes of DiseasesBroad spectrum of disease severityiceberg concept titanic hit the bottom of the icebergvariesdifferent for each parasiteThe epidemiological triangle caries the severity of the diseaseClassical and severe diseasesModerate severity mild illnessInfection without clinics illness asympnotic illness transmission can easily occurExposure without infection spread easily Rabiesaffects central nervous system transmitted through saliva usually fatalMeaslescommon skin rash transmitted from respiration clinical disease frequent few deathsTuberculosisinfectious disease that most commonly attacks the lungs inapparent infection frequentTypes of disease outbreaksThree main types1Endemicusual occurrence of a disease within a given geographical area normal rate2Epidemicoccurrence of a disease in excess of normal expectancy exceeds normal rate3Pandemicworldwide epidemic when it exceedstransmits to other areas occurs other places worldwideRo is a large number
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