Final Review for HLTA01

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Plagues and People Final examination Review Diseases in North America--------------------------------------------------------------- 9 million square kilometers stretches 136 degrees of longitude stretches 64 degrees in latitude separated from old world by major oceans Indigenous Diseases of North America 1. Animals Anthrax: occurs world wide get disease via infected animal Today: see this most often in butchers and farmers In the past, the hunters and gatherers were infected by this disease. There are two main types of anthrax 1. respiratory tract is affected, lungs fail and often causes death 2. cutaneous form: where the skin is affected. Pasteurellosis (Rabbit flu): it generally cause pneumonia it usually comes from domestic pet bites redness and pain on wounded area and can lead to flu-like symptoms death is unlikely Worms causes constipation, bloating, skin rash, fatigue, digestive problems and diarrhea infected via: water, food, mosquitoes 2. Insects relapsing fever contracted via ticks and lice 3. Soil Botulism food gets easily contaminated vomiting and diarrhea neurological symptoms: paralysis and death botox uses this bacteria: wrong amounts can cause death and unthinkable long-term affects 4. Water Salmonella Human Diseases Beringia baring like land bridge most likely origins of native Americans are Asians 1 nation= phenotypically more like Asians little body hair straight black hair eyelids epicanthic fold is similar Natives came during pleistocene During the last ice age, sea levels dropped 300ft and scarborough campus covered by 1 mile high of ice that stretched for 1300 miles when sea levels dropped 150ft, the ice was 100-200 miles wide Beringia was available from > 50-3700y BP (before present) > 25-1500y BP it was an ice age (therefore) no food north America was covered by 2 ice sheets 1. Laurentide : which was over middle of N.Am. 2. Cordillean : which was over the rockies However, there was a corridor that existed in bw the two masses that allowed for passage > 36-32000BP > 28-20000 BP > 13000 BP When did people arrive? > before 50000 BP > 25000 BP > more recently (which has a lot of evidence bc of the projectile points that were found --> NOT CALLED arrow heads ie Clovis: a type of P.point. Diseases in Founding People 1. Parasites > lice > worm 2. little to no infectious diseases > because #s were small (40-50) which leads to less human-to-human transmissions 3. animal diseases > mastodons, saber tooth tigers, giant cave bears, giant beavers and giant sloths How do you identify people who had diseases? Diseases in general, leave marks in bones. For example: osteoporosis, polio, arthritis, leprosyhansens disease Leprosy: the upper jawbone gets thinner and thinner until the point you lose two front incisors. The nasal cavities collapses. 4. cold climates: limits diseases Disease of Maize Based Agriculture Village 7000BC were established ie Cahokia: 40000 people there existed sanitation problems rodents and fleas and their associated diseases follow BUT most adapted to their environments Colombian contact (1492) arrival of the Europeans and the African slaves caused spread of exotic diseases spread smallpox via scabs put in blanketsthat were given to the unknowing native children immunologically defenseless cultural disruption by weapons, ill treated slaves European Diseases > smallpox was the earliest and deadliest disease > Espanola: 1519 was affected > Disease was eradicated in 1956 > In general, it killed over 90% of its victims > Measles > extremely contagious > Bubonic plague > affected Europe in the middle ages (killed 50% of victims) > In North America, (south western region; 1612-1619 in Florida, spread to New England > disease died until 1899 when it popped up in San Fransisco > Malaria > African slaves brought deadly falxiparum malaria It is thought as that Malaria is a tropical disease that affects the brain, heart and kidneys: when it affects kidney, you urinate black to dark brown urine. > British introduced depilitating vivax malaria cold and hot stages occur with extreme sweating 19 century Increased flows of immigration and filter invasion of diseases 1. cholera
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