Exam Study Guide - Small pox, Measles, Malaria

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Small pox Variola Vera Origin - Old world disease and an indiscriminate disease - 10,000BC first agricultural settlements in NE Africa and spread to India by means of ancient Egyptian merchants - 1570-1085BC: earliest evidence on mummies o Pharaoh Ramses V died 1156BC pockmarks - 1122BC in China mentioned in ancient text of India - 100AD Plague of Antonine - Europe: frequent epidemic during middle ages - 16 century became a serious disease in England and Europe Effects of Smallpox th - New world 16 century fall of the empires of the Aztecs and the Incas - 1617: Contributed to the settlement of N America by the French & English - biological warfare o French Indian War (1754-1767) deliberate use of smallpox - slave trade Etiology - Virus: genus Orthopoxvirus (also includes: monkeypox, cowpox, camelpox virus etc.) - Family: Poxviridae - At least two strains exist: variola major and variola minor o variola minor mortality rate is less than 2% in unvaccinated persons o variola major mortality rate is 3% in vaccinated individuals and 30%-50% in unvaccinated - Hemorrhagic smallpox or blackpox o malignant and hemorrhagic forms of variola major develop in approximately 5-10% of infected people o almost always fatal; mortality rate of 95% Transmission - continuous transmission required - only short term carriers - animal reservoirs do not exist - direct contact inhalation of aerosols or contaminated fomites - virus multiples in the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose then moves to the lymph nodes and then to internal organs, there it re-enters the bloodstream - infectious virus oronasal secretions and in skin scabs - potential for long distances aerosol spread is controversial - transmission on fomites possible for short periods of time www.notesolution.com
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