Plagues and Peoples HLTA01 Exam Study Guide from Lecture Notes

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Health Studies
Barakat- Haddad

Lec 2 Intro StuffLegionnaires TSSDefinitions Virus ultimate microparasite smaller than bacteria need an electron microscope to see can only reproduce within its host not technically alive Macroparasites larger made of many cells Ex Plasmodium malaria Transmission movement of a parasite from host to host Incubation Period time required for the disease to development replicate etc before any outward symptoms the disease IS doing something Latent Period the disease is just NOT doing anything It is just dormant completely inactive period before more symptoms present themselves Virulence capacity of a parasite to cause a disease and inflict harm on the host ie strength of the parasite Zoonotic infections that originate from animal sources and were somehow transmitted to humans Plaguein the past it referred to all disease outbreaks to strike a blow that wounds Now highly infectious usually fatal epidemic disease The word plague also typically seems to refer to bubonic plagueEpidemiological Triad 3 main factors that influence the occurrence of a disease 1HOST immunitylack of genetic factors nutrition Ex person 2AGENT biological physical chemical psychosocial ie stress agents Rate of growth and persistence of the agent are relevant Ex bacterium 3ENVIRONMENT an environment that promotes exposure Ex Contaminated water air Etc Modes of Transmission Direct person to person ie coughing sneezing touching just being around someone Indirect through a common routevector ie contaminated airwater mosquito fleas Dermal through the skin Inhalation during respiration ie breathing in particles Aspiration into the airway entry to the lungs some sort of choking reflex that makes it go into the lungs Ex LegionnairesIceberg Concept of the broad spectrum of disease severity classical and severe diseases are easily avoidable and can be noticed easily Clinical Diseases Asymptomatic Infection or exposure without infection Cant notice these and therefore transmission can easily occur Ex Typhoid Mary Subclinical Diseases Types of Disease Outbreaks EndemicCyclicSeasonalusual occurrence of a disease within a geographic area at a normal rateEpidemic occurrence of a disease beyond normal expectancyPandemicworldwide epidemic Determinants of Disease Outbreak number of people immune susceptible Incubation period If incubation period is long and infectious during it it will be a bigger disease outbreak Attack Rateratio of people in which the disease developstotal number of people at risk Herd Immunityresistance of a group to a disease due to immunity R factormultiplying factor of a diseasenumber of people that each infected individual will infect 0History general belief is that our hunter gatherer ancestors were healthy later larger population more meat in our dietsmore diseases from parasites in the meat sedentary habitsliving in one area closer togetheragricultural revolution and industrial revolution caused huge surges in population growth agriculture settling down meant that more people had more children partly for the cheap labour since they could help them with their forms trade social cohesion practise of night soil as fertilizermuch more likely to get sick from parasites in that irrigationbig risk for contaminated water Ex Snail fever the nile domestication of animals created more of a path for zoonotic infections to occur st1 citymeopotamia which is now Iraq 5500 years agoindustrial more effective transportation also more effective disease control with medical advances but also we have made more resistant strains Legionnaires Disease War veteran Philadelphia at a hotel 1970sa lot of people got sick Legionellathe bacteria wetcoolingairconditioning systems were the suspected source contaminated air aspiration TSSToxic Shock Syndrome a UCLA teaching assistant died in 1979 first reported case Staphylococcus Aerusbacteria the environment created with a highabsorbency tampon promoted this bacteria FDA standardized absorbency labelling got rid of polyacrylate and lowered overall absorbency to make it safer SARS Chinese man who travelled to Hong Kong Feb 2003 then later the disease spread to Canada an example of travel efficiency aiding the spread of a disease pandemic economic costs because people did not want to go out to restaurants and etc Lec 3 Plagues of AntiquityBubonic Plague Plagues of Antiquity characterized by parasites with long lived transmission stages 5000 BC to 700 AD The Pharoahs PlagueSnail fever Blood Fluke Disease Endemic Hematuria Schistosomiasis Egypt The Nile 1900 BC still present contaminated water parasite invades blood vessels Plague of AthensunknownEthiopiaGreece 430 B C screwed up their wine industry influenced the Spartans defeating Athens Roman FeverMalaria 20 BCbad air vapours from Roman Marshes but actually mosquitoes
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