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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

PLAGUES AND PEOPLE LEC 9: CHAPTER 7 - MALARIA malaria is a fever plague A Look Back antiquity of human malaria is reflected by evidence in the Ebers papyrus in clay tablets from the library of King Ashurbanipal and in the Chinese medical text, the Nei Chang -describes typically large spleen, periodic fevers, headache, chills and fever malaria probably came to Europe from Africa by the Nile Valley or through direct contact between European and people of Asia Hippocrates describes two types of malaria: Benign Tertian: recurrent fevers every third day Quartan: fevers on the fourth day those living near marshes had enlarged spleens diseasae was so prevalent in marshland of the Roman Campagna that the condition was called Roman Fever -fever recurred during summer season due to vapors emanating from the marshes “bad air” 12 century it was in Spain and Russia th 14 century it spread to England Malaria brought to the New World by European explorers, conquistadors, colonists, and African slaves Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (1845-1922) found within red blood cells transparent globules containing black-brown malaria pigment and, on occasion, mobile filaments emerging from clear spherical bodies (exflagellation) also found some patients had blood cells shaped like crescents discovered an animal parasite with different developmental stages William MacCallum and Eugene Opie (1896-1897) found that blood of sparrows and crows infected with Haemoproteus (bird parasite closely related to Malaria) contained two kinds of crescent –shaped gametocytes (male and female sex cells) found that exflagellation reflected the release of microgametes from the male gametocyte gametocytes of Haemoproteus in the blood, when ingested by a biting fly, release the gametes in the stomach, where fertilization occurs, producing a wormlike zygote, the ookinete Ronald Ross Doctor Patrick Manson (184401922) found that mosquitoes carry filaria, round worms that cause elephantiasis brown spotted winged mosquito called Anopheles that causes malaria 4 or 5 days after feeding on infected blood, the mosquito had wartlike oocysts on its stomach found that the size of the pigmented cells on the stomach depended exactly on the length of time since the mosquitoes had been fed on infected blood Robert Koch named the causative agent for malaria Bacillus Malariae -bacillus could not be grown in laboratory -brown spotted winged mosquitoes (Anopheles) causes malaria to healthy people (vector) -breeds in swampy marshy areas 1948, H.E Shortt, P.C.C Garnham -inoculated rhesus monkeys with sporozoites that they had obtained from the salivary glands of mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi (parasite similar to benign tertian malaria, Plasmodium vivax of humans) -in one week, parasites, called pre-erythrocytic stages were found in the livers of the monkeys human liver -infected with P.vivax and found at the same site in malignant tertian malaria, Plasmodium falciparum -female anopheline mosquito injects sporozoites that go first in the liver The Disease Malaria human malarias caused by P.falciparum, P.vivax, P.ovale, P. Malariae transmitted through the bite of a female anopheline mosquito -injects sporozoites through her salivary glands -usually less than 25 sporozoites inoculated -travel through bloodstream to the liver (takes less than one hour) -within liver, parasite asexually multiplies to 10,000 or more infective offspring (merozoites ) -invade erythrocytes -responsible for the pathogenesis caused by asexual reproduction of parasites in red blood cells and their release of infective offspring (merozoites) -merozoites released from erythrocytes can invade other red cells and continue cycle of 10-fold multiplication -when ingested by female mosquito, the male gametocyte divides into eight flagellated microgametes, which escape by exflagellation -they swim to macrogamete and one fertilizes it = motile zygote, the ookinete (moves either between or through cells of stomach wall) -encysted zygote, resembling a wart on the outside of the mosquito stomach, is the oocyst, sporozoites are produced init -oocyst bursts releasing its sporozoites into the body cavity of the mosquito, the sporozoites quickly find their way to salivary glands Primary attack of malaria begins with headache, fever, anorexia, malaise, and myalgia -fo
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