Plagues and people study notes (Autosaved) (1).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Plagues and people study notes Black Death Intro Great pandemic of plagues Ravaged parts of asia, middle east, north Africa, Europe in the middle of the fourteenth century Known it as great pestilence, great mortality, universal plague Identified as massive epidemic of plague Disease of rodents caused by Bacillus Yersinia Pestis History and geography Earliest evidence is in 1346 in cities of the Kipchak Khanate of the Golden Horde north and west of the Caspian sea Possible that it started in China before 1346 but more research is needed Reached Crimera in winter of 1346-7, and Constantinople shortly after Made 2 roughly circular paths, first is counterclockwise south and east through the midterranean and the middle east It reached Egypt autumn of 1347 Hit Cyprus and Rhodes in 1348 During the late spring and summer it hit Mediterranean littoral and Palestine – Gaza, Jersalem, Damascus, Aleppo, then east to Mecca, Armenia, and Baghdad in 1349 The second circle was greater in length and duration Moved through western Mediterranean and Europe Genoese ships brought disease to Sicily in 1347 Spread to Tunisia, the Italian mainland and Provence By summer of 1348 hit Iberian Peninsula and Paris and ports of southern England In 1349 ravaged British isles, northern France, and low countries and Norway, southern and western germany In 1350 northern and eastern germany, Sweden, and the baltics 1351 in eastern baltics and northern Poland In following 2 years it attacked Russia and Moscow in 1353 Average duration in any place is 5-6 months Flourishes in warm weather and less in winter Transmission and mortality Transmission of virus through humans, fleas, and rodents Ships carried rats faster than rats would’ve been able to moving through fields Rat flea – Xenopsylla Cheopis Human Flea – Pulex irritans Death rates were 30%-50% in Europe and Middle East Parts of Low country <20% Nuremburg escaped entirely Poor people who lived in crowded infested areas were more affect than rich who could flee to country estates Attemptes at control and Prevention Fell back on established measures Those who could afford it fled Believers thought it was a sign of martyrdom and divine mercy European reaction was drawing on traditional teachings of sin and penance, divine wrath for sin, sign of apocalypse Passed temporary laws against concubinage, swearing, Sabbath-breaking, and games of chance Flaggelants professed publicly and shipped themselves preaching repentence In Provence, Catalonia, Aragon, Switzerland, southern German, and Rhineland accused Jews of poisoning water wells and springs Preventive and curative practices were fortifying diet, rest, clean air, bloodletting, together with salves, internal medication and minor surgery Large scale bonfires to purify air Italy pronounced most highly developed medical instituitions but futile Fell back on street cleaning, control of practices such as butchery, tannery, dyeing, and emptying of privies Imposed restrictions of travel and sales of cloth to and from plague stricken countries Regulated burial of dead and prohibition of public assemblies, boarded houses of infected, and made settlements of wooden huts outside city walls to isolate and receive sick Leprosy Intro Few diseases that can be recognized in Western writing from at least the second century AD In high and later Middle Ages (c. 1000-1500 AD) we have abundant evidence of both the presence of leprosy and the ability to correctly diagnose it Medieval western society treated lepers harshly, considering them legally dead and segregated them in every way from the unaffected this was harsh but had influence on decline and disappearance of leprosy The Classical World 300 BC Hellenistic culture, created by the conquests of Alexander the Great, impressed itself upon the Eastern Mediterranean. Assigned a state of sin to the leprosy patient, but also considered bless to be able to expiate sin while still alive First recognizable description was written by Aretaeus of Cappadocia in the middle of the second century AD, but referred to it as elephantiasis Early Christian Europe Combinations of barbarian invasions and epidemic diseases resulted in sharp declines of cities The word civilization is derived from the word for city One king burned his tax roles when his children were hill thinking it was a punishment from God The High Middle Ages (1000-1347AD) Works of Aristotle available widespread Scholars saw a whole intellectual system, which ranged from ethics to metaphysics and biology Thomas Aquinas spent his life trying to see what Aristotle ‘really meant’ In thirteenth century, greatest intellectual revivals, such as Aristotle and Galen Renewed study in roman law resulted in vast changes in society Leprosy in Society (1000-1500 AD) First universities founded Church started to prohibit clergy to medicine due to they may cause a death As a result western Europe, for the first time after the Roman Empire to develop a class of physicians Hospitals Leprosaria were founded by noble families Felt need to help those because it is most admired behaviour from religious sense to show no fear of contagion and lavish generosity Leprosy in Literature By thirteenth century a leper could not share church, home, market, or cemetery with unaffected If wealthy seclusion at home, if not wealthy entry into leprosarium or a life of begging in hostility Legally the person was dead but partner cannot remarry until actually dead Leprosy seen as punishment for sin Life in Leprosarium was quasi-monastic, particular diets, clothing, and activities Occupants of Leprosaria Bone changes pathognormonic of leprosy are found in about 80% of the skeletons Shows that diagnosis of leprosy was accurate Early and late medieval physicians were able to distinguish the disease from others Showed substantial number of patients who died there before reaching adulthood Specific bone findings seen in leprosy alone Osteitis of alveolar process of the maxilla is one of the few osseous changes in leprosy which is not the result of secondary infection Percentage of bon resorbed is a straight line with r=0.8 at 2.4% Majority of cases had onset in childhood The Decline of Leprosy in Western Europe Showed leprosy was in sharp decline While leprosy were weakened, they were more susceptible to the plague and that they were also dependent on others for their food and other necessities Slightly weird because leprosy started to decline before the plague struck Leprosy in lepromatous form, patients can produce antibodies to pathogens, shows that lepromatous leprosy patients are very often immune to plague The History of Leprosy Spread to the New World Today the disease exists in Spain, Portugal, Romania, southern former USSR, Greece and the Baltics Stated that Columbus introduced leprosy into North America but no hard evidence In his survey of leprosy, Souza-Araujo indicates that the first cases of leprosy in Colombia were Spanish Jesuit Priest D. Pedro Alegre founded the San Lazarus Hospital in Havana On July 27 1677, King Philip IV of Spain decreed all lepers are should be isolated in this hospital Slaves were a large factor responsible for the development of leprosy Slaves first began to arrive in Louisiana in 1717, 40 years before Acadians Stated frequently that Acadians (French Canadians) brought leprosy over and were expelled by british in 1755 Acadia became Nova Scotia Leprosy was prevalent in Louisiana by 1758, origins attributed to Spanish settlers Scandinavians and Minnesota Approximately 160 cases in Northern U.S, majority residing in Minnesota, but rest in Iowa and Wisconsin In 1886, Dr. G, Armauer Hansen found only 13 cases during travels to these states The low number was unexplained because the official case count in 1900 were 107, ¾ from Norway and rest from Sweden and Iceland Origins of the National Leprosarium at Carville July 1920 it was announced that the national Leprosarium would be placed at Carville, Louisiana which since 1894 had been the site of the Louisiana Leper Home. In 1921 the facility was transferred to the United states of Public Health Service The ‘Father Damien of Louisiana’ Father Boglioli was ordained in New Orleans in 1841, a year after his arrival in America He was exceptionally brilliant and fluent in 12 languages In 1866 began work at the Charity hospital of New Orleans, giving special attention to patients with leprosy 9 years to this ministry he developed signs of leprosy but continued until 1880 when he couldn’t work anymore Unlike father Damien, his untiring work and suffering were generally unrecognized Secretly buried at night to avoid alarming the citizens of New Orleans Spread to Africa Africa may have been the first continent where l
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