Exam review notes part 2

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Disease Malaria Measles ( rubeola, red measles, morbilli, Small Pox hashba) Historical It is an old disease Earliest description attributed to Old world and an indiscriminate contex Hippocrates has mentioned it Rhazes (900 AD) clinically disease 12 century Spain and Russia th separated smallpox and measles - 10,000 BC - first agricultural 14 century England believed that both proceeded from settlements in NE Africa and spread 15 century new world same cause to India by means of ancient 1800s worldwide Egyptian merchants th Prevailing theory - red rash the 19 century Mississippi valley, NE US, mothers menstrual blood -child ris Earliest evidence on Egyptian tropics poison mummies (15701085 BC) Dante mentions it in writing (1265- Origins of term measles - misellus 1321) - Pharaoh Ramses V (died William Shakespear in writing (1564- or misella i.e. miserable 1156 BC) pockmarks 1616) 1670 -Thomas Sydenhams 1122 BC Described in China and is Carl Louis Alphonse Laveran (1880) observed clinical features; o Observed black-brown malaria mentioned in ancient texts of India description of his sons attack 100AD Plague of Antonine pigment in infected blood cells Clearly separate measles from 1989 Robert Koch argued that smallpox, and recognized Europe - frequent epidemic during malaria may be due to mosquitoes but was complications, such as cancrum oris the Middle Ages not successful 16 century became a serious and encephalitis disease in England and Europe Ronald Ross & Patrick Mason 1757 - Francis Home demonstrated o Discovered oocysts in stomachs of Plague of Antonine anopheles the infective nature - he succeede New world in the 16 century - fall in transmitting measles using blood o Discovered the infectious stage in from an infected child of the empires of the Aztecs and the the mosquito salivary glands Incas Giovanni Battista Grassi reported the Contributed to the settlement of N Peter Ludwig Panum (1820 America by the French & English Anopheles claviger as human carrier 1885) o Sent by Danish government (1617) Could be used as Biological warfare to investigate an epidemic in Faeroe Isles in1846 French-Indian War (17541767) - o Panum conducted the first deliberate use of smallpox epidemiological study Slave trade 1. Rash appears 12 to 14 days after contact with an infected person 2. Infectivity is greatest 3 to 4 days before the rash appears 3. Contagious nature of disease respiratory route of transmission 4. Life-long immunity www.notesolution.com
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