Week1.MidtermReview (2).docx

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Health Studies
Krista Maxwell

HLTC02 WINTER 2013 Midterm Review Week 1: Introduction – Analyzing Women’s Health in Social and Historical Context Lecture: 1. Understand health care systems as sites in which dynamic (gendered, raced, classed) relations of power are both transformed and reinscribed 2. Identify multiple entry points for examining relationship between women and health: women as providers and users of services, as targets of health policy and interventions, as activists, mediators and critics 3. Understand the critique of a too-narrow focus on women as child-bearers and rearers in international health initiatives as instrumentalist, imperialistic, and negligent of women’s broader rights and needs 4. Explain and illustrate the particular contributions of a) historical and b) ethnographic approaches to analyzing women and health 5. Describe how political and social forces can shape scholarly research and health care systems, using examples Article: Skirting the Issue – Women and International Health in Historical Perspective by Anne-Emanuelle Birn • Critique of narrow focus on reproductive & maternal health in international health – neglect of broader determinants of women’s health (political, economic and social for instance) • Historical context: late 19thcentury onwards mothers & infants as objects of public health interventions • Gendered differences in rates of infestation linked to (re)productive roles • Males – as children defectated in multiple locations so minimal prevalence of hookworm but as they grow older and work as field labourers, they defectte in one spot that leads to infection, companies do not provide shoes or latrines unfortunately • Females – were more infected earlier in life due to defectating in one location so as to stay close to home but with growing age and responsibility of chores, given shoes to work, and thus leads to lowered infection rates • Failure to advocate for latrine-construction by landowners: existing socio- economic order reinforced • Health promotion campaigns invoked Mexican masculinity, American morality (individual responsibility) • From 1932 middle-class women especially trained to staff newly established Sanitary Units • Maternal & infant health monitored via home visits • Modernizing intimate practices and extending reach of biomedical surveillance • Rockefeller interventions created and exacerbated hierarchies of knowledge, profession and social class • Consistent with modernization goals of Mexican state • Instrumental use of midwives in absence of trained medical & nursing personnel • Midwives “a grave danger” , blamed for high infant morality rates HLTC02 WINTER 2013 • Complex prior role of midwives: social, spiritual, emotional, practical (anthropological sources) • “finished by losing more than they had gained” • Women were used as both health care providers and patients to advance the underlying intentions of the American Rockefeller Foundation which was to convince the Mexican government, the medical establishment, business interests and the general population of the value of the foundation’s public health model; to support the Mexican government in its state-building efforts; and to stabilize Mexico’s political and commercial relations with the US • Population programs disguised as women’s health had tremendous criticisms such as the lack of informed consent, and the reception of reproductive health programming became a tool of racism and imperialism rather than as a bonafide attempt to imp
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