HLTC02 Chapter Summaries all.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Toba Bryant

Chapter 1 Our Bodies Our Selves in ContextWomen and the BodyThroughout western history beliefs about the bodyparticularly the difference between men and womens bodies have greatly influenced the development of contemporary western scienceWomens roles as nurturers and caretakers and their own messy bodies which menstruate lactate and give birth give way to gendered association of women with the body and men with the mindThe term Somatophobia or fear of the body was heightened in discussions about womens bodiesMens bodies were believed to be ordered and self contained and the standard of the norm that womens bodies should be compared toBiological determinism that is that peoples abilities and roles on society were assured to be attributable their biologyThe move in feminism has been the affirmation of the womansbodyImpetus for womens Health movement in CanadaKey defining features of the womens health movement is defined by and shaped in social psychological and economic environments and relationships Health is a social issue and social contractFirst WaveFeminist focused primary on gaining access to formal political systemThey stated that bodies should not prevent women from being able to participate in the political decisionmakingSecond WaveFeminist focused on critiquing the ways in which women had been characterized as less than fully human by male philosophers and thinkers because of their bodiesThe second wave was a period of social upheaval in North America and European society which spawned a host of social movements The second wave is characterized as the period of activism dominated by the concerns of white middle class ablebodied heterosexual womenThe key issues during the second wave are reproductive health issues violence against women sexuality and issues related to womens roles in healthcare sectorThe third waveMany of the issues in the first and second wave remain concerns in the third waveContemporary feminists have become active players in both the development of womens specialized health programs and in the development of health policy in CanadaActivism in the third wave is characterized by increased involvement of women in bureaucratic and institutional structuresFeminist agendas were reactive to government and institutional agendasChallenges for the FutureWomens health advocates still find themselves up against a medical system that is biomedical in focus and treats women as a set of parts to be fixed by practitioners who alone know whats best for womenChapter 2 More than age and Biology Overhauling Lifespan Approaches to womens healthLife coursespan perspective arose during 1960s and different types of scientist use it Life coursespan perspectives looks into a series of roles and experiences that an individual progresses through as she proceeds from birth to death Looks into different phases instead of focusing in a single phases in isolation Lifespan approach to womens health aims to inform and better structure policies that address the specific circumstance and problems women face at various stages of their lives as well as issues that are universal amongst women Compared to men women do have different lifespan and patters of illnessEvolution of the Lifespan Approach in Womens Health There are different definitions of lifespan and different ways of applying depending on the organizations In the US the health of women girls is affected by developmental physiological and psychological age In Canada three life stages 1 Childhood and adolescence 2 Early to midadulthood 3 later lifeLifespan Framework Current Practices and Proposed ReformsThere is lack of longitudinal data on womens health which of course is essential for any effective lifespan analysisThere are a lot of issues that needs to discuss to develop an effective approach that is capable of understanding and responding to the diversity of womens longitudinal health issues Such as oBiomedical Hegemony even though we have a lot of research that demonstrates the relationship between social factors and health lifespan approach to womens health remain largely determined by biomedical model For example for diabetes the existing biomedically informed approach would suggest that obesity and genetic factors are the most important determinant of morbidity in diabetes However they need to put thing like lack of acceissible services high rate of complication early onset which are clearly seen in the aboriginal community Current lifespan approaches do not focus on the right issues ore result hence not being able to improve all womens lifeoThe organization and conceptualizing of life Stages it illustrates the life stages Early life stages life span approach consider fetal life and childhood in term of risk factors later associated with chronic diseases and disorders Adolescences issues that are often raised are STIs HIVAIDS pregnancy menarches violence and lifespan mark this stage in life by development concerns such as employment finding a partner having and raising children In Midlife focuses in chronic diseases and menopause Finally later life the problem changes into functional health Such as issues with vision hearing and much more oIndividualizing Responsibility for healthbiomedicine is fixated on individuals their risks factors and behaviours that are expressed through the body There is danger i presenting all choices that women make in their lives as freely determined personal choices Using this individualist approach ca n lead to blaming women for apparent lifestyle they have no control over The separation of the individual from her large social situation is of course a huge difference between
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