Midterm Exam Notes HLTC05.doc

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Health Studies
Rhan- Ju Song

Midterm Exam Notes HLTC05 02/10/2012 20:13:00 ← Epidemiological Triad ← - Mixture of the biotic environment ← (food) ← What accounts for poor health? • Conditions in which people are born grown, live and work are responsible for high burden of disease ← What factors affect poor and unequal living conditions • Poor social policies and programmes • Unfair economic arrangements • Bad politics ← Who is responsible for looking over conditions who is not doing their job • Commission on social determinants of Health • Constitution of the World Health Organization ← Change social determinants of health- Improve equity of health ← ← Armelagos et al, 2005 ← - what are the epidemiological transitions. Note the time frame and historical processes ← ← First transition- is the Agricultural transition from Hunters and Gatherers to Agriculture. 10 – 15 thousand years ago we had a significant change in human history with agriculture we had increased more dense populations ← Lead to seven things 1) within group and inbetween group hetereogenity of susceptibility and resistance to disease 2) encroachment of human habitation 3) loss of jobs, 4) difference use of land 5) water contamination 6) more increased group interaction for longer period of time. 7) within group exposure to path ← More social in equality Demographic, social and ecological change and increased infectious disease risk ← ← What are the names of the transitions ← 1) Paleolithic—baseline ← 2) ← ← What diseases were associated with the first transition ← - poor dental health - Anemia ← - growth and development ← - infectious disease ← ← A century ago ← -public health measures, improved nutrition, and medicine resulted in decrease in IFD and rise in non IFD and chronic degenerative disease ← - older dieing and getting sicker ← -morbidity> mortality ← cancer, hypertension, heart disease, diabests, affective disorders, obesity due to diet, mental stress, activity level, behavioural practices, enviromnetal pollution ← -environmental degradation ← -immunization got rid of infectious diseases, IFD resulted in greater life expectancies and reduction in infant mortality Now entering third transition. Re-emergence of IFD and emergence of novel diseases-anthropogensisi - re-emergence of infectious disease overused and misused antibiotics increased susceptibility, reactiviton and acceleration of TB re emergence of disease was due to 1) social, economical and technological change 2) microbial adaptaion 3) demographic – spread of dengue 4) environmental—agricultural developmental projects, damns, deforestation, floods, droughts and climatic changes Criticism of Disease emergence How has urbanization effected human societies and health patterns th Urbanization cause epidemics in Europe from 16 century—influenza plague tb small pox measles, population aggregation, travel and economic development. Urbanization causes a greater divergence and inequality - large settlements increased issue of removing human waste and delivering uncontaminated water - cholera - high population densities= respiratory transmission - process of urbanization and globalization and era of exploration lnked fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. - -transcontinental and transoceanic disease exchange - slums that rose in industrial cities focal point of overty and spread of dddisease - What is the current state of wealth and health disparities around the world? ← -inequalities between and within societies have widened ← -rich are getting richer and poor are getting poorer ← World bank gini coefficient ← Gini index increased globally from 0.54 to 0.70 ← 968 million children under 5 years of age are underweight and 11 million children die each year from preventable diseases ← income inequality is a driving force in the creation of class discrimination and both external and internal value judgements based on one’s position in an economically based social hierarchy ← - unequal distribution of wealth and resources globally ← ← What are medical anthropologists role in health? ← -recognizes that culture is an important part of care ← -individual is an active participant in defining treating and coping with heal
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