WHO 2008 week 11 reading.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
R Song

WHO 2008  Worldwide, 10 million children die each year before their fifth birthday  Equally important, at least 200 million children are not achieving their full developmental potential, with huge implications for their health and for society at large  Experiences in early childhood (defined as prenatal development to 8 years of age), and in early and later education, lay critical foundations for the entire lifecourse. It is better for the individual child, andfor society – in rich and poor countries alike – to provide a positive start, rather than having to resort to remedial action later on.  The science of ECD shows that brain development is highly sensitive to external influences in early childhood, starting in utero, with lifelong effects. The conditions to which children are exposed, including the quality of relationships and language environment, literally ‘sculpt’ the developing brain  Educational attainment is linked to improved health outcomes, partly through its effects on adult income, employment, and living conditions. There are strong intergenerational effects– educational attainment of mothers is a determinant of child health, survival, and educational attainment  Children from disadvantaged backgrounds are more likely to do poorly in school and subsequently, as adults, are more likely have lower incomes and higher fertility rates and be less empowered to provide good health care, nutrition, and stimulation to their own children, thus contributing to the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage  Creating the conditions for all children to thrive requires coherent policy-making across sectors. Parents and caregivers can do a lot, but support is needed from government, civil society organizations, and the wider community.  While environments strongly influence ECD, children are social actors who shape, and are shaped by, their environment  Investments in ECD are one of the most powerful that countries can make – in terms of reducing the escalating chronic disease burden in adults, reducing costs for judicial and prison systems, and enabling more children to grow into healthy adults who can make a positive contribution to society, socially and economically. Investment in ECD can also be a powerful equalizer, with interventions having the largest effects on the most deprived children. Unfortunately, most investment calculus in health and other sectors discounts such future benefits and values disproportionately those benefits seen in the immediate to short term.  Implementing a more comprehensive approach to early life includes extending quality interventions for child survival and physical development to incorporate social/emotional and language/cognitive development. ECD programmes and services should comprise, but not be limited to, breastfeeding and nutrition support, comprehensive support to and care of mothers before, during, and after pregnancy – including interventions that help to address prenatal and postnatal maternal mental health problems, parenting and caregiver support, childcare, and early education starting around age 3.  Interventions are most effective when they provide a direct learning experience to the children and their caretakers and are high i
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