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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Dan Silver

Skin: critical in temperature balance and in homeostasis Xerosis: excessive sun exposure and pollutants, cooler climates, home heating systems, cold winter air causes body to protect itself by drawing blood supply away from skin Pressure Ulcers: area of skin that breaks down: being in wheelchair, older age Seborrheic Keratoses: non cancerous growth of outer layer of skin, main feature is waxy “pasted-on” appearance, not caused by sunlight Benign (non cancerous), Malignant (cancerous) First sign that malignant tumor has spread is swelling of nearby lymph nodes, but cancer can spread to almost any part of body Lung Cancer: highest rate of deaths in cancer 40% of Canadian women will develop cancer during lifetime, 45% for men 62% people expected to survive for five years after cancer diagnosis Hard Tissue: bone loss, weakening, menopause, osteoporosis (low levels of calcium, phosphorus) Arthritis: over 100 types, inflammation of one or more of joints. Two common types: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis – joint pain and stiffness Osteoporosis: most common form, cartilage in joints wear down over time, can affect any joint in body Rheumatoid: attacks lining of joints causing swelling, can result in aching, throbbing, deformity Bursitis: caused by overuse or repetitively stress of joins, over 150 bursae in body (small fluid filled sacs lubricate and cushion pressure points between bones and the tendons and muscle near joints), occurs when bursa becomes inflamed, movement is painful Tendintis: inflammation of tendon, can occur in any of the body’s tendons, common around shoulders, elbows, wrists and heels Soft Tissue: Ligaments: surround joints and bind them together, helps strengthen and stabilize joints, permitting movements only in certain directions, connect one bone to another Tendons: attach each end of muscle to a bone Connective Tissues: provide structure and support, connecting other types of tissues to each other, cartilage, fascia Visceral fat: surround internal organs Calcification: mineral calcium builds up in soft tissue, causing tissue to harden Microtears: very small tears found in tendons, ligaments and muscle Cardiovascular system: heart, blood, blood vessels Main function: deliver nutrients and oxygen to tissues, carry waste product to organs responsible for elimination Age related changes: enlargement of heart, slowing of electrical activity, slowed pulse, increased blood pressure, decreased ability to cool down/heat up Hypertension: 140/90 Normal: 120/80 Systolic pressure is peak pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the beginning of the cardiac cycle when ventricles are contracting Diastolic: minimum pressure in arteries, which occurs near the end of cardiac cycle when ventricles are filled with blood Arteriosclerosis: thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls Athersclerosis: one of the most common forms of arteriosclerosis, desposition of plaques inside arterial wall Coronary Heart Disease: leading cause of heart disease – results from atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of heart Heart Failure: when heart can’t pump enough blood to meet body’s needs – almost exclusively a disease of older people Respiratory System: age related changes: decrease in cough reflex, reduced ability to clean themselves and fight infection – signs of lung cancer usually occur when disease is advanced More Canadian women die of lung cancer than breast cancer Pneumonia: inflammation of lungs usually caused by infection Gastrointestinal system: age related changes: nutrient absorption, more susceptible to infection, less mucus secreted, liver’s protein synthesis, increased risk of gallstones Disease related changes: periodontal disease, constipation, diverticulosis, gallbladder disease, cancer, under nutrition, obesity Kidneys: remove waste, filter blood, two most common kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure Ureters: muscular tubes, 40cm long, attach at upper end of kidneys and at lower end to the bladder Urine formed in kidneys flows down the ureters into bladder. At the bladder, each urether passes through an opening in bladder wall, which closes when bladder contracts to prevent urine from flowing back to ureter Bladder: expandable, muscular sac, urine accumulates in bladder as it arrives from ureters, gradually increases in size to accommodate volume of urine, sends nerve signal to brain to pee Urethra: tube that drains urine from bladder out of body Age related diseases: urinary system: kidneys less able to conserve water/excrete water, decreased ability to completely empty bladder, leakage Urinary incontinence, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer Prostate cancer: usually grows slowly and can often be cured successfully, may not cause symptoms in early stages Vision: eye is hollow sphere, inside of eye is filled with gel like fluids light passes through cornea, pupil is opening to eye interior -pupil becomes larger/smaller to regulate amount of light that enters eye -iris is muscle that controls pupil size - flexible, transparent lens focuses light on your retina (back of eye) -retina converts light energy into a nerve impulse that is carried to the brain and inter
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